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  • 1
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Syncope ; Blood pressure ; Bed-rest ; Fluid shifts ; Capillary filtration ; Tissue thickness
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To evaluate mechanisms of late orthostatic intolerance, slow fluid shifts along the body axis were studied during deconditioning by 24-h bed-rest and during 13-min upright tilts before and after this manoeuvre. In 11 healthy male subjects the fluid volumes of a thorax and a calf segment (impedance plethysmography) as well as tissue thickness at the forehead and the tibia (miniature ultrasonic plethysmograph) were recorded. Cardiovascular performance was monitored by recording heart rate (electrocardiogram), brachial and finger arterial pressure (by the Riva Rocci method and by the Finapres technique) as well as stroke volume (by impedance cardiography). Bed-rest led to a cephalad fluid shift with a mean interstitial leg dehydration of 2.2 ml·-100 ml−1 with no changes in body mass and plasma volume. No syncope during the tilt occurred before bed-rest, while after bed-rest 8 subjects fainted between min 2.1 and 9.0 of the tilt. Bed-rest resulted in an augmented initial heart rate response to tilting which was similar in all subjects. In later orthostasis, bed-rest caused two- to threefold faster caudad fluid shifts with higher calf filtration rates in fainters (prior to hypotension) than in nonfainters. Through bed-rest the estimated extravasation within 10 min into general lower body tissue spaces increased by 192 ml in (late) fainters as opposed to only 23 ml in nonfainters. It was concluded that contributing factors to orthostatic intolerance may be slow transcapillary fluid shifts which are easily underestimated and whose quantity and time course call for further investigation after various deconditioning manoeuvres. In particular, the postflight fluid shifts in astronauts who will have markedly dehydrated legs, may impose a circulatory stress which needs to be evaluated. In general, the filtration rate in relevant areas appears to be an integrative and easily determined parameter, reflecting hormonal and neurogenic vascular as well as local interstitial control of the Starling forces.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Finapres ; Pulse pressure ; Vasomotor state ; Warming up ; Exercise
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To compare the readings of blood pressure by the Riva-Rocci (RR) method with those of peripheral arterial pressure (PAP) as recorded by the Finapres (FP) device, exercise was performed by six male subjects on a cycle ergometer at a constant exercise intensity of 140 W. In addition, forearm volume was determined by impedance plethysmography. At rest, systolic FP values exceeded RR values by ≥ 10 mmHg. During 60-min exercise both values at first increased almost in parallel with each other. While RR reached a plateau after 3 min, FP then started to decrease continuously up to the 10th min and finally stabilized at 20–30 mmHg below RR. The impedance values showed a similar declining slope, indicating vasodilatation. To separate the effects of sympathetic drive from heat elicited vasodilatation, a second experimental series was performed with ischaemic static calf exercise (5 min, 90 N), since this increases the sympathetic tone but prevents systemic heat distribution. In contrast to findings reported from intra-arterial measurements, no exercise effect on the pulse pressure amplification was obtained. However, the heating of one fingertip distal to the FP-cuff led to a significant decrease in PAP compared to the control recording made simultaneously from the other hand. It was concluded that heat induced vasodilatation may make FP unrepresentative of systemic blood pressure, in particular during exercise. Moreover, the FP-cuff seemed to induce substantial vasoconstriction due to venous occlusion. The FP method would therefore be useful for monitoring continuously systemic blood pressure if no (dilative) vasomotor changes occurred or their ranges and time courses were known sufficiently well.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Dynamic exercise ; Interstitial muscle fluid ; Heart rate ; Cardiovascular afferents
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The volume of interstitial fluid in the limbs varies considerably, due to hydrostatic effects. As signals from working muscle, responsible for much of the cardiovascular drive, are assumed to be transmitted in this compartment, blood pressure and heart rate could be affected by local or systemic variations in interstitial hydration. Using a special calf ergometer, eight male subjects performed rhythmic aerobic plantar flexions in a supine position with dependent calves for periods of 7 min. During exercise heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen uptake (VO2) and blood lactate concentrations were measured in two different tests, one before and after interstitial calf dehydration through limb elevation for 25 min, compared to the other, a control with unaltered fluid volume in a maintained working position. Impedance plethysmography showed calf volume to be stabilized in the control position. Leg elevation by passive hip flexion to 90° resulted in a fast (vascular) volume decrease lasting 〈2 min, followed by a slow linear fluid loss from the interstitial compartment. Then, when returned to the control position, adjustment of vascular volume was completed within 2 min and exercise could be performed with dehydration remaining in the interstitium only. Cadiovascular response was identical at the start of both tests. However, exercising with dehydrated calves elicited a significantly larger increase in heart rate compared to the control, whereasVO2 was identical. The blood pressure response was shown to be only slightly enhanced. Structural interstitial features varying with hydration, most likely chemical or mechanical ones, may have been responsible for this amplification of signals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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