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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Ballistic movement ; Three-burst pattern
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In isotonic and isometric goal-directed index finger movements made as fast as possible, the “braking hypothesis” ascribed to the antagonist burst was tested. Under isotonic conditions, the extensor burst often failed to occur in small angle movements with low inertial load. It regularly occurred, however, in small angle movements with high inertial load and in wide angle movements with both low and high inertial loads. Such features suggest, indeed, the antagonist burst as being part of braking strategies. Under isometric conditions, the antagonist burst — if it occurred — exhibited characteristics which suggested a rapidly alternating movement rather than a braking strategy.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Benign and malignant fibrous histiocytomas ; Storiform pattern ; Incidence ; Histological structure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A starlike arrangement of cells and fibers, the “storiform pattern”, was found to be a typical, but not obligatory, histological feature of benign and malignant fibrous histiocytomas. In 155 benign fibrous histiocytomas storiform structures were missing in 29 cases, chiefly of the fibroblastic type comparable with classical “dermatofibroma”. 12 of 70 malignant fibrous histiocytomas did not reveal storiform structures, especially the cellular pleomorphic variant, i.e. the classical pleomorphic sarcoma. Storiform structures were either small and highly cellular with few fibers (collagen type III), or larger, less cellular, but with abundant fibers (collagen type I). There was no sharp demarcation between these two extremes, but many transitional structures or patterns were seen. The histiocytic nature of the cells was demonstrated in both variants of storiform structures by immunhistochemical methods on paraffin embedded material. Alpha1-anti-chymotrypsin was especially valuable in this respect.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The variability of the hepatitis C virus genome was investigated in a group of German patients who developed chronic hepatitis C after parenteral administration of contaminated immunoglobulin to prevent Rh sensitization after pregnancy. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence alterations of the E1 and the first hypervariable region of the E2 gene of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome from sera of two randomly selected patients were studied by comparison of HCV sequences obtained from the original inoculum (anti Rh immunoglobulin) and from patient sera collected in 1979 and 1989. All isolates were classified as subtype 1b but showed nucleotide insertions of up to 12 nucleotides at the cleavage site of E1/E2. Microheterogeneity of HCV genomes was found in the immunoglobulin supporting the quasispecies model of HCV distribution. Remarkable nucleotide exchanges over the 10 year period in the E1 region (0.9−5.2×10−3 base substitutions per genome site per year) and especially in the first hypervariable region of the E2 gene (about 1.5×10−2) occurred. The HCV genome undergoes a selection of variants, though it is not known if this derives from mutation or selection of pre-existing rare variants.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The properties of three different recombinant hepatitis B virus core proteins expressed inEscherichia coli were compared: an N-terminal fusion protein, a C-terminally truncated protein and a sequence-authentic protein. All three proteins assembled into capsid-like particles with typical HBc-antigenicity, sedimentation behavior and distinctive electron microscopical images. Apart from this, however, variant HBc proteins displayed properties different from sequence-authentic HBc protein p21.4. Unlike p21.4, the particles of the N-terminal fusion protein p22.2 were sensitive to proteolytic attack by trypsin at variable sites within its arginine-rich C-terminus but not in its extended N-terminus. We therefore conclude that the C-terminal region is located on the surface of the p22.2 particle. These particles also showed increased HBe-antigenicity, as did the C-terminally truncated core particles p17.6, and to an even greater extent p18* particles which were derived from p22.2 by tryptic digestion. This might be interpreted as evidence for an — albeit minor — structural change. All variant core particles were less stable and contained less RNA. Electron microscopic indication for DNA binding of C-terminal deleted p17.6 particles was obtained using an aqueous spreading technique.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Fibrous histiocytomas ; Structural patterns ; Reconstruction of storiform structures
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A storiform pattern is an important structural feature of fibrous histiocytoma (FH). In this analysis reconstructions of histological patterns were carried out from drawings. Highly cellular FH with only a suggestion of storiform pattern and small star-formations were seen, there were other lesions with more pronounced fiber formation which showed more distinct and larger storiform stars. These structures can frequently be followed for only 3 sections of 5 micron thickness. In contrast to leiomyomas or meningioma, no regular or consistent orientation of these structures with respect to vessels is evident. Storiform structures apparently develop at the periphery of adjacent proliferating cells groups. They show a typical and diagnostically significant histological pattern, which was found to some degree in all FH examined.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2315
    Keywords: Computer tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Ray-casting algorithm ; Voxel
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract Multi-slice images obtained from computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging represent a 3D image volume. For its visualization we use a raycasting algorithm working on a gray-scale voxel data model. This model is extended by additional attributes such as membership to an organ or a second imaging modality (“generalized voxel model”). It is shown that the combination of different surface-rendering algorithms together with cutting and transparent display allow a realistic visualization of the human anatomy.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Esophageal cancer ; Endosonography ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The results of endosonography and computed tomography, using an optimized CT technique, have been compared in the preoperative detection of intrathoracic tumor spread of esophageal cancer. In 22/40 patients with esophageal tumors complete passage of the ultrasonic endoscope was possible. Endosonography was superior to CT in the assessment of early stage of esophageal tumor (T1-2). Out of 9 tumors confined to the esophageal wall, 8 were classified correctly by endosonography and only 5 by computed tomography. The results in advanced T3 and T4 tumors (13 patients) were comparable following endosonography and computed tomography. Endosonography is an important means of selecting patients with early-stage cancers in whom a curative resection is still a possibility.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Homologeous Nerve Grafts ; EMG-Control ; Homologe Nerveninterponate ; EMG-Kontrollen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei acht Patienten mit peripheren Nervenverletzungen (5 N. ulnaris, 2 N. medianus, 1 N. peronaeus communis), die klinisch und elektrophysiologisch mehrfach kontrolliert worden waren, wurden durchschnittlich 2–16 Monate nach der Verletzung interfasciculäre homologe lyophilisierte Interponate operativ eingesetzt. Die Mindestlänge der Interponate betrug 30, die maximale Länge 100 mm. Die maximale Entfernung des Interponats vom Muskel betrug 40–50 cm, die minimale 6–8 cm. Nur in einem der Fälle war auch nach Über-schreiten des zu erwartenden minimalen Zeitraums Reinnervation durch den verletzten Nerven selbst zustande gekommen. Diese Reinnervation wurde durch Reizung des betroffenen Nerven und des benachbarten bewiesen, sie war jedoch klinisch bedeutungslos. In den anderen Fällen war es z. T. ebenfalls zu Reinnervation gekommen, jedoch nicht vom verletzten Nerven her, sondern durch kollaterale Sprossung vom Nachbarnerven.
    Notes: Summary A clinical and electrophysiological study was made of 8 patients in whom lyophilized homologeous nerve grafts were implanted. Five patients had experienced ulnar nerve injury, 2 had injury of the median nerve and 1 peroneal nerve dissection. The operation was performed between 2 and 16 months after the injury. Graft length varied from 3–10 cm. Maximum distance from proximal end of graft to endplate zone was 40–50 cm, minimum distance was 6–8 cm. In only one instance (ulnar nerve injury) was reinnervation of the muscle via the graft accomplished, as was demonstrated by stimulating the ulnar and median nerves. The amount of reinnervation was, however, without any functional significance. Reinnervation also occurred in other instances, but was achieved through collateral nerve fiber growth.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1433-9285
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the last three centuries, western culture has emphasized initiative as a way of life. This trend has resulted in extraordinary progress in many aspects of life, though at the same time created a frightfully specialized lifestyle. We have moved far from the ancient Greek principle “Meden agan,” “don't overdo anything.” Initiative, not intelligence or motivation, is what sets apart western culture. Initiative is a self-activating force that, while not initially goal-directed, drives western man to constant achievement and accumulation. It is therefore strange that initiative has not been seriously studied while intelligence and motivation, with both seem less important to western culture, have been exhaustively researched. The importance of initiative can be clearly seen by studying non-western cultures. In my years working in northern Canada and Zululand, South Africa, and from stories from my colleagues, I have seen many examples of traditional culture inhibiting initiative. Culture, ethnicity, religious and racial factors may each play a role in curtailing the development of initiative. The inhibiting role of some traditional cultures may be a key to the social stratification than many western cultures, including the U.S., now face. Perhaps we should be looking at initiative as a determining factor in the development and continuation of slums and the exclusion of whole sectors of the population from the “American Dream”. One thing is absolutely clear. Initiative is integral to the success of the individual in western culture. As such, it deserves to be studied. Initiative is not as easily quantifiable as intelligence or motivation, but that should not prevent us as social scientists from studying it. It is too important to be ignored.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1063-7826
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The processes of formation and annealing of radiation defects in Si1−x Gex samples irradiated with 4-MeV electrons were studied. It is shown that, in the range of Ge contents of 3.5–15 at. %, a reduction in the efficiency of formation of oxygen-containing defects (VO and VO2) compared to that in silicon is observed. The existence of three types of VO centers, perturbed and unperturbed by neighboring Ge atoms, is detected in Si1−x Gex.
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