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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: MR imaging ; Contrast agents ; Gd-DTPA ; Gd-DTPA BMA ; Relaxivity ; Relaxation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. We report in vitro T1 and T2 relaxation studies for the open-chain complexes Gd-DTPA and Gd-DTPA BMA. Measurements were performed on phantoms containing aqueous and plasma solutions of different concentrations by MR imaging in a 1.5T superconducting whole-body scanner. Longitudinal relaxation times T1 were evaluated from serial turbo-FLASH experiments for concentrations less than 1 mM, whereas for larger concentrations the values were obtained from a standard inversion recovery (IR) sequence. Transverse relaxation times T2 were determined using multi-echo spin-echo MRI protocols. The T1 and T2 relaxivities of the nonionic Gd-DTPA BMA are similar to those of the Gd-DTPA. The temperature dependencies of the relaxivities were determined over a temperature interval ranging from 21 to 50 °C and were found to be slightly different for the two contrast agents. In the case of Gd-DTPA BMA a larger deviation of the expected temperature behavior of the relaxivities was observed as compared with Gd-DTPA. Deviations from a strictly linear dependence of relaxation times on temperature were found at lower concentrations in aqueous solutions. In plasma solutions a high T1/T2 ratio was observed for low concentrations, which decreased monotonically with increasing concentrations.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Tuberculosis ; Child ; Contact tracing ; Migrants ; Antitubercular agents
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) presenting to the University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland, was studied over 2 years. Clinical data on all children receiving antituberculous drug therapy was collected. Of the 43 identified cases, 42% had active disease (i.e. clinical evidence of organ involvement), the remaining 58% being asymptomatic. All 43 children originated from countries other than Switzerland. Symptomatic, drug induced hepatitis necessitated temporary interruption of therapy in 2 children (5%). Contact screening yielded three new cases of pulmonary TB, three previously diagnosed cases and seven instances of a positive medical history in relatives living in other countries. Of the 34 families in this study, contact screening could not be completed in 8. The results of this study indicate that children with TB are primarily associated with families originating from countries other than Switzerland, particularly those in which TB remains endemic. Tuberculin skin testing should therefore be targeted at this group. Contact tracing has also been shown to be beneficial.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde 148 (2000), S. 239-241 
    ISSN: 1433-0474
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter ; Thrombose ; V. cerebri magna ; Innere Hirnvenen ; Hämorrhagischer Infarkt ; Sonographie ; Key words ; Thrombosis ; V. cerebri magna ; Deep cerebral veins ; Hemorrhagic infarction ; Sonography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary We demonstrate the characteristic sonographic features of thrombosis of the vena cerebri magna. Thrombosis of the vena cerebri magna occurred in a preterm infant with an gestatation age of 33 weeks. Thrombosis resulted in bilateral infarction of the regions drained by deep cerebral veins, including periventricular white matter, thalamus and choroid plexus with intraventricular haemorrhage. The clue for the diagnosis was the sonographic pattern of lesions. The diagnosis was confirmed by duplex-scanning and the non contrast enhanced computed tomography. Discussion: In any patient with bilateral cerebral lesions, affecting thalamus and/or white matter thrombosis of the vena cerebri magna or the deep cerebral veins should be considered.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Dargestellt werden die charakteristischen sonographischen Befunde bei einer Thrombose der V. cerebri magna. Bei einem Frühgeborenen aus der 33. SSW kam es durch eine Thrombose der V. cerebri magna zu einer beidseitigen Infarzierung von Marklager, Thalami und Plexus choroidei sowie zu einer intraventrikulären Blutung. Der charakteristische Sonographiebefund führte zur Diagnose, welche durch Dopplersonographie und Computertomographie bestätigt wurde. Diskussion: Bei bilateraler Infarzierung von Marklagern und/oder Thalamus ist eine Thrombose der V. cerebri magna bzw. eine Thrombose im Bereich der tiefen Hirnvenen auszuschließen.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-0474
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter ; Hintere Seitenfontanelle ; Hintere Schädelgrube ; Zerebrale Sonografie ; Neugeborene ; Hydrozephalus ; Key words ; Mastoid fontanelle ; Posterior fossa ; Cerebral sonography ; Neonate ; Hydrocephalus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Objective: The evaluation of the mastoid view for the neonatal cerebral sonography. Patients and Methods: In 19 preterm infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus sonography through the mastoid fontanelle was performed after standard sonography of the brain through the anterior fontanelle. Results: The mastoid view allows the detection of pathology in the posterior fossa missed by the standard sonography of the brain through the anterior fontanelle. Stranding in the retrocerebellar cistern, clots within the IV. ventricle, and cerebellar hemorrhage were demonstrated by the mastoid view. Further, the aqueduct, the folia cerebelli and the width of the IV. ventricle could be assessed. Conclusion: Standard sonography of the neonatal brain through the anterior fontanelle is not sufficient for the evaluation of the posterior fossa. The mastoid view is an additional approach for the pathology of the posterior fossa and should be performed in all neonates at risk for brain injury.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Fragestellung: Welche Bedeutung hat die hintere Seitenfontanelle für die neonatale zerebrale Sonografie? Patienten und Methodik: 19 Frühgeborene mit posthämorrhagischem Hydrozephalus wurden im Anschluß an die zerebrale Sonografie durch die große Fontanelle zusätzlich durch die beiden hinteren Seitenfontanellen untersucht. Ergebnisse: Die Sonografie über die hintere Seitenfontanelle ermöglichte die Darstellung pathologischer Befunde in der hinteren Schädelgrube, die über die große Fontanelle nicht erfaßt wurden. Über die hinteren Seitenfontanellen ließen sich Adhäsionen in der Cisterna magna, Koagel im IV. Ventrikel sowie zystische Parenchymdefekte nach Kleinhirnblutung darstellen. Weiterhin ließen sich Strukturen wie der Aquädukt, die Folia cerebelli und die Weite des IV. Ventrikels beurteilen. Schlußfolgerung: Pathologische Befunde der hinteren Schädelgrube werden übersehen, wenn routinemäßig die Sonografie des neonatalen Gehirns nur über die große Fontanelle durchgeführt wird. Die Sonografie durch die hintere Seitenfontanelle ist eine zusätzliche Möglichkeit, die hintere Schädelgrube zu untersuchen, und sollte bei allen Neugeborenen mit einem Risiko für eine peripartale Hirnschädigung durchgeführt werden.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde 147 (1999), S. 940-941 
    ISSN: 1433-0474
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1433-0474
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Posthämorrhagische Ventrikelerweiterung ; Frühgeborene ; Therapie ; Keywords Posthemorrhagic ; Hydrocephalus ; Preterm ; Infant ; Therapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Background. 35% of preterm infants with intraventricular hemorrhage develop ventricular dilatation. The posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation can persist, be transient or be progressive. Finally 1–2% of all very low birthweight (VLBW 〈1500 g) infants require shunt placement for the treatment of the posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Outcome. The neurodevelopmental outcome is extremely poor in children surviving progressive posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. Therapy. There are no uniform guidelines for the treatment of preterm infants with progressive posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. Randomised multicenter trials demonstrated, that inhibition of cerebrospinal fluid production with acetazolamide and furosemide or early cerebrospinal fluid tapping did not reduce the need for shunt placement and may worsen the outcome or can be associated with adverse side-effects. Preterm infants with posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation should be treated by standard therapy with uniform guidelines for cerebrospinal fluid tapping and shunt placement.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Hintergrund. 35% der Frühgeborenen entwickeln nach einer intraventrikulären Blutung eine Ventrikelerweiterung. Die posthämorrhagische Ventrikelerweiterung kann persistieren, transient oder progressiv sein. Letztlich entwickeln 1–2% der Frühgeborenen mit einem Geburtsgewicht 〈1500 g einen shuntpflichtigen posthämorrhagischen Hydrozephalus. Prognose. Die Prognose von Frühgeborenen mit progressiver posthämorrhagischer Ventrikelerweiterung ist hinsichtlich Mortalität und neurologischer Morbidität noch sehr ungünstig. Therapie. Bisher gibt es keine einheitlichen Therapierichtlinien für Frühgeborene mit progressiver posthämorrhagischer Ventrikelerweiterung. Multizenterstudien zeigten, dass die medikamentöse Hemmung der Liquorproduktion mit Azetazolamid und Lasix oder frühzeitige serielle Liquorpunktionen die Shuntpflichtigkeit nicht vermindern und den Verlauf und die Prognose sogar ungünstig beeinflussen. Die Erkenntnisse aus diesen Studien mahnen zur Vorsicht. Frühgeborene mit posthämorrhagischer Ventrikelerweiterung sollten außerhalb von Studien möglichst konservativ und zurückhaltend mit einheitlichen Kriterien für Liquorpunktion und Shuntimplantation behandelt werden.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Hypertension ; infancy ; genetic strains ; environmental contributions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cardiovascular responses of adult organisms to feeding are well characterized and, in general, are understood as acute adaptations required for processing and distributing nutrients. Research over the past several years has shown that infants also have important cardiovascular responses to nutrient intake and that these are regulated by changes in autonomic activity to the heart and vasculature. Recent studies have provided results that suggest these responses in infancy may make an important contribution to the long-term development of cardiovascular function, in particular, adult blood pressure (BP). The purpose of this presentation will be to review the evidence that has led to this conclusion, offer ideas about how this potential early-life shaping of subsequent cardiovascular function may come about, and suggest further studies that will be required in order to characterize the mechanisms responsible for these effects.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: PACS: 42.60.DA; 42.60.Fc; 42.80
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Ultrafast pulse sources based on multi-mode optical fibers are discussed. High-power passively mode-locked fiber lasers based on multi-mode rare-earth-doped optical fibers greatly exceed the power limitations of single-mode oscillators. Ultrafast multi-mode fiber amplifiers operating in conjunction with multi-mode oscillators provide even higher power levels, where nonlinear propagation effects enable pulse compression to below 100 fs. Multi-mode fiber oscillators can be combined with single-mode Raman-shifting fibers to produce widely wavelength-tunable sources of femtosecond pulses. Further amplification in Yb fibers allows for the generation of sub-100-fs pulses with W-level average powers.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied physics 68 (1999), S. 343-347 
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: PACS: 42.30; 07.79; 42.65.k
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We present an analysis of these effects and demonstrate a simple, yet powerful technique to eliminate these coherence artifacts. The technique relies on a superposition of the signal field with a coherent auxiliary SH-field of controllable phase and amplitude and allows a direct observation of the true χ(2)-morphology of the interface.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Dipyridamole ; adenosine monophosphate ; cell proliferation ; hemopoiesis ; gamma-irradiation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Combined treatment with dipyridamole and adenosine monophosphate enhances cell proliferation in the hemopoietic tissue of normal and gamma-irradiated mice. This effect can be explained by the elevation of extracellular adenosine, and the receptor-mediated activation of the cell adenylate cyclase system.
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