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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Motion ; Orientation ; Vection ; Visual-vestibular interaction ; Oculogyrat illusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary This paper compares the motion sensations of a subject rotated about a vertical axis for two fixed visual fields (a large peripheral field and a single central spot) and in darkness. Motion sensation is described in terms of threshold, frequency response, and subjective displacement and velocity. The perception of angular acceleration showed significantly lower threshold and reduced latency time for the illuminated presentation. The level of illumination, however, produced no significant difference in threshold. The subjective frequency response, measured by a nulling method, showed a higher gain in the illuminated presentation, particularly at low frequencies and accelerations. With the subject rotating a pointer to maintain a fixed heading during triangular velocity stimuli, subjective displacements showed no difference for all different visual cues. Magnitude estimates of the after-rotation associated with deceleration from a constant velocity showed a quicker rising speed, larger subjective velocity and longer duration in the illuminated presentation. All the results suggest that the oculogyral illusion is principally responsible for producing a lower threshold in the illuminated presentation, although the fixed peripheral visual field tends to reduce reliance upon vestibular signals. At lower intensity rotation stimuli, this effect is especially apparent.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1181
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Das Zusammenwirken von Wärmestrahlung und Mischkonvektion auf den Strom eines „grauen“ Fluids in einem horizontalen, isotherm beheizten Kreisrohr wird numerisch untersucht. Der Ansatz der Grundgleichungen erfolgt in der Wirbel-Geschwindigkeitsform, die Lösung mit Hilfe der DuFort-Frankel-Methode. Der Beitrag der Strahlung wird in Integralform angesetzt und mittels einer Finitelement-Knotenpunkt-Approximation gelöst. Der Einfluß von Strahlung und Konvektion auf die lokale Nusselt-Zahl und die Mischtemperatur ist dargestellt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, daß der Wärmeübergang unter dem Einfluß von Strahlung und auftriebsinduzierter Sekundärströmung wesentlich verstärkt werden kann. Daneben bewirkt die Wärmestrahlung eine Abschwächung der von den Sekundärströmungen ausgelösten Schwankungen im Verlauf der örtlichen Nusselt-Zahl.
    Notes: Abstract A numerical analysis is performed on the combined thermal radiation and mixed convection for a gray fluid flow in a horizontal isothermally-heated circular tube. The governing equations of vorticity-velocity form are employed and solved by DuFort-Frankel method. The contribution of radiation is formulated by integral expression and solved by finite element nodal approximation. The effects of radiation and convection on local Nusselt number and the developing of bulk temperature are presented. The result shows that the heat transfer can be significantly enhanced by the effects of radiation and secondary flow induced by buoyancy. Besides, the fluctuation in local Nusselt number curve which is caused by the existence of secondary flow is reduced by the effect of thermal radiation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Phenytoin ; Carbamazepine ; drug interaction pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A three-phase trial has been done in 11 volunteers. They were given 600 mg phenytoin (Dilantin capsules) in each phase after an overnight fast. In the first study, phenytoin was given alone. In the second phase 400 mg carbamazepine (CBZ) was given at the same time as the phenytoin, and in the third part, 200 mg CBZ t. d. s. was given for one week prior to the phenytoin. Blood samples were taken for 72 h in each phase. Plasma levels of phenytoin and CBZ were determined by HPLC, and plasma protein binding was determined by equilibrium dialysis. The unbound fraction of phenytoin was 0.082, 0.085, and 0.077 in the control, single-dose CBZ, multi-dose CBZ phases, respectively. Single and multiple doses of CBZ decreased the plasma level of phenytoin. The 72-h AUC of phenytoin was 276, 237, and 176 mg h·l−1 in the 3 phases, respectively, and the 72-h AUC of unbound phenytoin was 22.8, 20.5, 13.0 mg h·l−1. The AUC of phenytoin (unbound and total) after multiple doses of CBZ was significantly lower than in the other two phases. The apparent volume of distribution (Vz/f) was 89.9, 110.3, and 121.3 l in the 3 phases, respectively. Through pharmacokinetic analyses, the decreased AUC and increased Vz/f were attributed to decreased bioavailability of phenytoin when CBZ was co-administered.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Key words Solitary maxillary central incisor ; Holoprosencephaly ; Congenital nasal pyriform aperture Chromosome 18p- ; or ring(18) ; Stenosis ; Hypopituitarism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Solitary maxillary central incisor (SMCI) and congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) have been reported as an isolated morphogenic defect or associated with pituitary deficiency, holoprosencephaly, ocular coloboma, or chromosomal abnormalities. We report two cases and analyse 40 cases of SMCI and 24 cases of CNPAS, including 15 cases of combined SMCI and CNPAS, obtained from the literature. Of the patients with SMCI, 69% had short stature, 48% growth hormone deficiency or hypopituitarism, 23% pituitary absence or hypoplasia, and 17% had del (18p-) or r(18). Of the patients with CNPAS, 63% had SMCI, 75% were short, 43% had hypopituitarism or growth hormone deficiency, 36% had pituitary or CNS anomaly, and 33% had del (18p), r(18), or del (13q). Conclusions Solitary maxillary central incisor and congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis can be a diagnostic clue to pituitary hypofunction, CNS, ophthalmological and cytogenic anomalies.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The genes coding for the rotavirus major neutralizing protein, VP7, from 5 Australian porcine rotaviruses representing glycoprotein (i.e. VP7 or G) serotypes 3, 4, and 5, were sequenced. The genes were each 1,062 nucleotides long with two long open reading frames for proteins of either 326 or 297 amino acids and containing only one potential glycosylation site at amino acid position 69. When compared to the corresponding genes of human viruses, the porcine genes showed very high nucleotide and deduced amino acid homology. Sequence comparison also revealed that Australian porcine rotaviruses of G serotype 4 and 5 were similar to the corresponding porcine strains found in the U.S.A. and U.K., while G serotype 3 and 4 porcine rotaviruses were closely related to human G serotype 3 strain, RV-3 and serotype 4 strain, ST-3, respectively. These Australian rotavirus VP7 sequences were found to correlate with serological data we reported previously.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary.  Previous results from our laboratory have demonstrated that type I DNA topoisomerase activity is required for the replication and gene expression of pseudorabies virus (PRV). In the present report, we further analyzed the expression of topoisomerase I in PRV-infected cells, and the western blot result showed that the expression of topoisomerase I was increased after virus infection. The increase sustained to late time of infection when the cytopathic effect was obvious and the synthesis of most host proteins was shut off by PRV. From transient expression assay, it was also found that the promoter of cellular topoisomerase I gene could be stimulated by immediate-early protein (IE180) and viral early protein 0 (EP0), and these two regulatory proteins appeared to work synergistically. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that PRV can stimulate the expression of topoisomerase I and that the stimulation is mediated at least by IE180 and EP0 proteins of PRV at the transcriptional level.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary.  We have examined Spodoptera littoralis type B nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliNPV) infections in CLS79, Sf9, and Se1 cells derived from lepidopteran insects of the genus Spodoptera (Family: Noctuidae), Ld652Y cells from Lymantria dispar (Family: Lymantriidae), and Md210 cells from Malacosoma disstria (Family: Lasiocampidae). CLS79, Sf9, and Se1 cells were permissive for SpliNPV infection as these cell lines supported complete viral DNA replication, virus-specific transcription, and production of viable progeny. Neither Ld652Y nor Md210 cells supported production of viable SpliNPV progeny. Ld652Y cells supported limited viral DNA replication and displayed reduced and delayed transcription of viral-specific RNAs. Md210 did not support viral DNA replication and displayed dramatically reduced transcription of viral-specific RNAs. We used transient expression assays as an indirect measure of the translation of SpliNPV early gene products in Sf9, Ld652Y, and Md210 cells. While transactivation of viral promoter-mediated luciferase expression occurred in SpliNPV-infected Ld652Y cells, little to no transactivation activity was detected in SpliNPV-infected Md210 cells. Our data indicated that the block to productive SpliNPV infection in Ld652Y and Md210 cells may be at the level of viral RNA transcription and further suggested that host factors play an important role in productive SpliNPV infection.
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