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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Disease ; Susceptibility ; Polymorphism ; Resistance ; E.coli
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Evidence is presented that a dominant allele, S, is expressed as a receptor for K88 on the brushborder surface of the pig intestinal cell. The homozygous recessive (ss) lacks this receptor. The receptor enables K88 — positive coliforms to adhere to the gut of the piglet which they must do if they are to cause neonatal diarrhoea. The homozygous recessive is thus a disease resistant animal. A possible reason for the persistence of the dominant (susceptible) gene is given.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Diabetes ; retinopathy ; platelet adhesiveness ; ADP activated platelet aggregation ; ADP splitting enzymes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé L'adhésivité des thrombocytes, l'activation par l'ADP de leur agrégation et l'activité des enzymes scindant l'ADP dans le sang et le plasma ont été étudiés chez 22 diabétiques porteurs de rétinopathie grave, chez 22 sujets diabétiques anciens avec une rétinopathie minime ou nulle et chez 28 sujets témoins. On a mesuré le taux d'agrégation des thrombocytes sous l'effet de 5, 3, 2 et 1 μM d'ADP, le maximum d'agrégation atteint et le taux de désagrégation de ces agrégats. Les thrombocytes des sujets atteints de rétinopathie fortement évolutive sont apparus plus sensibles à l'effet de faibles concentrations d'ADP; on a observé un accroissement significatif du degré d'agrégation et une diminution de la vitesse de désagrégation des agrégats thrombocytaires formés dans les conditions expérimentalesin vitro. Si cela se produisaitin vivo, il pourrait en résulter une occlusion des capillaires. Cette sensibilité accrue à l'ADP et cette incapacité à se désagréger n'étaient pas dues à une différence dans l'activité du système d'enzymes scindant l'ADP dans le sang. On n'observe pas de différences significatives dans ces paramètres si l'on compare le groupe important des diabétiques avec les sujets témoins. Contrairement à certains rapports, aucun des deux groupes de diabétiques ne présentait d'accroissement apparent de l'adhésivité des thrombocytes.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung An 22 Diabetikern mit schwerer Retinopathie, an weiteren 22 Diabetikern mit langem Krankheitsverlauf, aber keiner oder minimaler Retinopathie und an 28 Kontrollpersonen wurde die Adhäsion der Thrombocyten, die Aggregation der durch ADP aktivierten Thrombocyten und die Aktivität von ADP spaltenden Encymen im Blut und Plasma gemessen. Der Grad der Thrombocytenaggregation, ihr Maximum und der Grad der Desaggregation wurden unter dem Einfluß von 5, 3, 2, und 1 μM ADP bestimmt. Die Thrombocyten bei aktiv fortschreitender Retinopathien waren gegenüber der Wirkung von geringen Konzentrationen von ADP empfindlicher. Es wurde auch eine signifikante Erhöhung des Ausmaßes der Aggregation und eine Verminderung des Desaggregationsgrades von Thrombocytenaggregaten, die sich unterin vitro Bedingungen gebildet hatten, festgestellt. Wenn diesin vivo vorkommen sollte, kann daraus ein Verschluß von Kapillaren entstehen. Die erhöhte Empfindlichkeit gegenüber ADP und die Unfähigkeit zur Desaggregation war nicht auf Unterschiede in der Aktivität von ADP spaltenden Enzymen des Blutsystems zurückzuführen. Bei dem Vergleich der großen Gruppe von Diabetikern mit der Kontrollgruppe wurden keine signifikanten Unterschiede der Parameter aufgedeckt. Im Gegensatz zu einigen Berichten in der Literatur konnte bei keiner der Diabetikergruppen eine Erhöhung der Adhäsion von Thrombocyten gefunden werden.
    Notes: Summary Platelet adhesiveness, ADP-activated platelet aggregation and the activity of the ADP-splitting enzymes in blood and plasma have been studied in 22 diabetics with severe retinopathy, 22 long-duration diabetics with minimal or no retinopathy and 28 control subjects. The rate of platelet aggregation under the influence of 5, 3, 2 and 1 μM ADP, the maximum aggregation attained and the rate of disaggregation of these aggregates were measured. The platelets from actively deteriorating retinopaths were found to be more sensitive to the effect of low concentrations of ADP; a significant increase in the extent of aggregation and a decrease in the rate of disaggregation of platelet aggregates formed under the experimental conditions,in vitro were observed. If this should occurin vivo, then capillary occlusion might ensue. This increased sensitivity to ADP and inability to disaggregate, was not due to any differences in the activity of the ADP-splitting enzyme systems in blood. Significant differences in the parameters were not observed when the large diabetic groups were compared with the control subjects. Contrary to some reports, an increase in platelet adhesiveness was not apparent in either diabetic group.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Unhatched eggs and plasma samples from prefledged bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from a recovering population in the Canadian Great Lakes Basin were contaminated with organochlorine compounds at levels comparable to those reported for eagle populations in several areas of the United States. PCBs were among the most commonly detected contaminants and occurred at high concentrations in plasma. Plasma PCB concentrations in Lake Erie nestlings were significantly higher than in chicks from Lake Nipigon (0.130 and 0.047 mg/kg wet weight, respectively). Blood levels of mirex were higher in nestlings from Lake Superior compared to those from Lake Erie (0.0012 and 0.0006 mg/kg wet weight, respectively). Migration routes and over-winter locations of avian prey that constitute a part of the bald eagle chick's diet are likely to contribute to these spatial contaminant patterns in plasma. Atmospheric deposition and a cold condensation effect for chlordane compounds may have produced higher levels of these compounds in plasma samples from Lake Superior compared to samples from Lake Erie (0.020 and 0.008 mg/kg wet weight, respectively). Levels of DDE in plasma were generally low, ranging in concentration from 0.02 mg/kg wet weight for lakes Erie and Nipigon to 0.06 mg/kg wet weight for Lake Huron. Concentrations of organochlorines in eaglet plasma remained relatively stable between 1990 and 1996; no significant trends associated with year of sampling were detected. The data from Lake Erie showed no correlation between productivity and plasma levels of PCBs or DDE during this time period. There were no indications that the concentrations of contaminants detected were adversely affecting productivity in Canadian Great Lakes bald eagle populations. Residue levels in eggs from Lake Erie eagle territories were equally or more contaminated than eggs from other highly contaminated environments in the United States such as the Great Lakes and Columbia River estuary. Concentrations of DDE and PCBs in Lake Erie eggs declined significantly between 1974 and 1994. Although dieldrin and chlordane levels showed a similar decline, these relationships were not statistically significant. Mirex concentrations were relatively stable. Eggs from Lake of the Woods were significantly less contaminated than those from Lake Erie (PCBs: 3 and 84 mg/kg wet weight, respectively; DDE: 3 and 24 mg/kg wet weight, respectively). Reproductive success (number of young produced/active nest) remained constant between 1982 and 1996 and productivity is sufficient to maintain an increasing population. The number of active nests has increased during this period indicating that the population is expanding and might be expected to do so until suitable habitat becomes limiting. Reductions in organochlorine levels, reintroduction efforts, immigration from other populations, and changes in habitat quality have likely contributed to the observed growth in the number of breeding pairs.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Capillary fragility ; capillary resistance ; diabetic retinopathy ; growth hormone retinal haemorrhage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé 1. La mesure de la résistance capillaire cutanée chez cinquante-huit diabétiques âgés de moins de cinquante et un ans a montré un ahaissement significatif de cette résistance par rapport à un groupe témoin de centsept sujets normaux. — 2. Dans un groupe de trente-cinq diabétiques depuis quinze arts, vingt-deux ont montré une résistance capillaire réduite et cecei était associé à une grande fréquence d'hémorragies rétiniennes. Chez les treize autres, la résistance capillaire n'était pas réduite et l'hémorragie rétinienne était minime. — 3. Un autre groupe de dix diabétiques avec rétinopathie dégénégrative avait une résistance capillaire cutange très faible. Dix diabétiques sans rétinopathie du tout au bout de quinze ans avaient une résistance capillaire élevée.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung 1. Die Messung der Resistenz der Hautcapillaren bei 58 Diabetikern unter 51 Jahren ergab beim Vergleich mit 10 Normalpersonen signifikant erniedrigte Werte. — 2. 22 von 35 Diabetikern mit einer Erkrankungsdauer von 15 Jahren wiesen eine herabgesetzte Capillarresistenz auf und gleichzeitig eine hohe Frequenz von Retinablutungen. Bei den restlichen 13 war die Capillarresistenz nicht verringert und fanden sich kaum Retinablutungen. — 3. Eine weitere Gruppe von 10 Diabetikern mit fortschreitender Retinopathie wiesen eine sehr stark herabgesetzte Capillarresistenz in den Hautgefäßen auf. Bei 10 Patienten ohne Hinweise auf eine Retinopathie nach 15 Jahren Diabetes-Dauer fand sich eine hohe Capillarresistenz.
    Notes: Summary 1. Measul'ement of cutaneous capillary resistance in fifty eight diabetics aged less than fifty-one years showed a significant lowering of this resistance when compared with a control group of one hundred and seven normals. — 2. In a group of thirty-five diabetics of fifteen years duration twenty-two showed reduced capillary resistance and this was associated with a high incidence of retinal haemorrhages. In the remaining thirteen, capillary resistance was not reduced and retinal haemorrhage was minimal. — 3. A further group of ten diabetics with deteriorating retinopathy had a very low cutaneous capillary resistance. Ten diabetics with no retinopathy at all after fifteen years had high capillary resistance.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1433-3023
    Keywords: Stress incontinence ; Silastic slings
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Between September 1985 and June 1988, 67 patients with stress urinary incontinence were treated with reinforced Silastic slings using an abdominovaginal approach. Of these patients, 54 were cured, 2 were improved and 10 were the same or worse (1 patient was not followed up). Six patients who are now continent require periodic intermittent self-catheterization; 3 patients had to have the sling removed, due to a persistent sinus or pain; and 16 patients had to have the sling adjusted.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The alcohol extract of catnip has a biphasic effect on the behavior of young chicks. Low and moderate dose levels (25–1800 mg/kg) cause increasing numbers of chicks to sleep, while high dose levels (i.e. above 2 g/kg) cause a decreasing number of chicks to sleep.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-9686
    Keywords: Coronary anatomy ; Finite element ; Network generation ; Mathematical model
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract A discrete anatomically accurate finite element model of the largest six generations of the coronary arterial network is developed. Using a previously developed anatomically accurate model of ventricular geometry the boundaries of the coronary mesh are defined from measured epicardial coronaries. Network topology is then generated stochastically from published anatomical data. Spatial information is added to this topological data using an avoidance algorithm accounting for global network geometry and optimal local branch angle properties. The generated vessel lengths, radii and connectivity are consistent with the published studies and a relativity even spatial distribution of vessels within the ventricular mesh is achieved. The local finite element coordinates of the coronary nodes within the ventricular mesh are calculated such that the coronary geometry can be recalculated within a deformed ventricular mesh. © 2000 Biomedical Engineering Society. PAC00: 8710+e, 8718Bb, 0270Dh
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-9686
    Keywords: Forward problem ; Electrocardiographic simulation ; Conductivity effects ; Geometric effects ; Coupled FEM/BEM ; High order interpolation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract This paper investigates the effect on torso potentials of changes in the material properties of the torso volume conductor and changes in the relative geometry of the heart and torso. The investigations are performed using a number of forward simulations with a high-order coupled finite element/boundary element torso model. This torso model contains descriptions of the epicardium, lungs, skeletal muscle (with a continuously varying fiber field) and subcutaneous fat. The number of nodes, elements and solution degrees-of-freedom used in the computational torso model are considerably smaller than previous torso models of similar complexity. The successful forward simulations in this paper hence demonstrate the use of the high-order coupled approach with realistic problems. The results of the torso simulations show that the torso inhomogeneities do affect the torso potentials but do not affect the distribution or pattern of the torso potentials. The inhomogeneities considered are found to have a varying, but important, effect on the torso potentials. The effect of the subcutaneous fat is found to be more important and the effect of the skeletal muscle is found to be less important than previous reports in the literature. The results also show that the relative geometry of the heart and torso is very important in determining the torso potential magnitudes and distributions. © 2000 Biomedical Engineering Society. PAC00: 8719Hh, 8719Nn, 8719Ff, 8710+e
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-9686
    Keywords: Respiratory ; Computational model ; Lungs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract An anatomically accurate model of the conducting airways is essential for adequately simulating gas mixing, particle deposition, heat and water transfer, and fluid distribution. We have extended a two-dimensional tree-growing algorithm to three dimensions for generation of a host-shape dependent three-dimensional conducting airway model. Terminal branches in the model are both length limited and volume-supplied limited. A limit is imposed on the maximum possible branch angle between a daughter and parent branch. Comparison of the resulting model with morphometric data shows that the algorithm produces branching and length ratios, path lengths, numbers of branches, and branching angles very close to those from the experimental data. The correlation between statistics from the generated model and those from morphometric studies suggests that the conducting airway structure can be described adequately using a “supply and demand” algorithm. The resulting model is a computational mesh that can be used for simulating transport phenomena. © 2000 Biomedical Engineering Society. PAC00: 8719Uv, 8710+e
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