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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: propranolol ; sympathetic nerve activity ; subcutaneous blood flow ; muscle blood flow ; autoregulation ; veno-arteriolar reflex
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The influence of propranolol on blood flow in peripheral tissues was studied in 10 normotensive subjects. Adequacy of beta-blockade was ascertained by an ergometric test. Perfusion of the subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle was measured by the local133Xe-washout technique. The arteriolar dilatation underlying the autoregulatory response to a decrease in arterial perfusion pressurehead was not affected by beta-blockade. Propranolol did not change the magnitude of arteriolar constriction elicited by the local sympathetic veno-arteriolar reflex. Thus, the locally induced increase in the discharge rate along the peripheral sympathetic adrenergic fibres did not lead to measurable change in beta-receptor activity. The present results indicate that local bloodflow regulatory mechanisms are not affected by propranolol. They also indicate that the direct peripheral effects of propranolol are of no clinical importance in normotensive subjects in the supine position, when the general activity in the sympathetic nervous system is low.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Phenobarbital ; Cerebral blood flow ; Newborn infants ; Foetal distress
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of phenobarbital on cerebral blood flow (CBF) was investigated by the intravenous Xenon133 clearance technique in seven term newborn infants with signs of mild to moderate hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy, all on sustained spontaneous ventilation. Phenobarbital treatment had no significant effect on CBF 60 min after loading dosage (20mg/kg i.v.). Likewise, no significant change in mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate or transcutaneous gas tensions was observed. Though slight changes in CBF of short duration cannot be excluded, conventional dosage of phenobarbital to term newborn infants with foetal distress apparently imposes no risk of cerebrovascular damage.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Balance ; Joint laxity ; Ligament ; Motor programming ; EMG
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The onset latency and discharge amplitude of preprogrammed postural responses were evaluated in order to determine if the structure of synergistic activation could be altered by ligamentous laxity at the knee joint. Twelve subjects with unilateral and one subject with bilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency were tested while standing on a moveable platform. External balance perturbations (6 cm anterior or posterior horizontal displacements of the platform) were presented at velocities ranging from 15 to 35 cm/s. Perturbations were presented under the following experimental conditions: unilateral and bilateral stance, knees fully straight or flexed, and with ankle motion restricted or free. These stance, knee position, and ankle motion conditions were introduced to alter the stress transmitted to the knee joint during movement of the support surface. The automatic postural response was recorded from the tibialis anterior (T), quadriceps (Q), and medial hamstrings muscles (H) bilaterally. The normal response to an externally induced backward sway involved the automatic activation of T and Q at latencies of 80 ms and 90 ms respectively. Activation of the hamstrings in the non-injured extremity was not coupled with the postural response. Hamstrings are not typically involved in the correction posterior sway because H activation would tend to pull the center of mass further backwards. However, when the response in the ACL-deficient extremity was compared to the non-injured limb: (1) the automatic postural response in the ACL-deficient extremity was restructured to include hamstrings activation (100 ms latency), (2) H activation time was faster and less variable in the ACL-deficient limb, and (3) the ratio of H/Q discharge amplitude integrated over 100 ms and 200 ms from the onset of EMG activation showed a dominance of hamstring activity during unilateral stance on the lax limb. In addition, H/Q ratios integrated over 200 ms showed dominant hamstring activity in the ACL-deficient limb during bilateral stance. (4) Crosslimb comparisons showed greater normalized IEMG amplitudes for T, H, and Q during unilateral stance on the lax limb. These results suggest that a capsular-hamstring reflex is integrated into the existing structure of a preprogrammed postural synergy in order to compensate for ligamentous laxity. Furthermore, the generalized increase of response gain observed during perturbations of unilateral stance on the lax limb indicates that joint afference can modulate central programming to control localized joint hypermobility. A concept of postural control is discussed with respect to the capsular reflex, joint loading and displacement of the center of gravity.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Key words     Phenobarbital ; Cerebral blood flow ; Newborn infants ; Foetal distress
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract      The effect of phenobarbital on cerebral blood flow (CBF) was investigated by the intravenous Xenon133 clearance technique in seven term newborn infants with signs of mild to moderate hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy, all on sustained spontaneous ventilation. Phenobarbital treatment had no significant effect on CBF 60 min after loading dosage (20 mg/kg i.v.). Likewise, no significant change in mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate or transcutaneous gas tensions was observed. Though slight changes in CBF of short duration cannot be excluded, conventional dosage of phenobarbital to term newborn infants with foetal distress apparently imposes no risk of cerebrovascular damage.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Ophthalmologe 95 (1998), S. 172-175 
    ISSN: 1433-0423
    Keywords: Key words Gunshot • Orbit ; Schlüsselwörter Schußverletzung • Orbita
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Über orbitale Schußverletzungen wurde bisher in keiner deutschen ophthalmologischen Zeitschrift berichtet. Die Biomechanik und Prognose dieser seltenen Verletzungsform sollen analysiert werden. Patienten und Methode: Es wird über 4 Patienten im Alter von 20–63 Jahren berichtet, die sich in suizidaler Absicht in die rechte Schläfe geschossen hatten. Die klinischen und röntgenologischen Befunde sowie die interdisziplinäre Versorgung werden beschrieben. Ergebnisse: Zwei der Patienten verloren trotz frühzeitiger operativer Behandlung mit Rekonstruktion der verletzten Knochen und Weichteile ihr rechtes Auge und erlitten in 3 Fällen auch linksseitig schwere funktionelle Einbußen bis zur Erblindung. Schlußfolgerung: Orbitale Durchschüsse stellen eine massive Traumatisierung dar, deren Prognose im wesentlichen vom Verlauf des Schußkanals und der optimalen interdisziplinären Erstversorgung abhängt.
    Notes: Summary No reviews of orbital gunshot injuries have been published in German ophthalmological journals. In this article biomechanical and prognostic factors of this rare type of injury are analysed. Patients and methods: We report on 4 patients, aged 20–63 years, who tried to commit suicide by shooting themselves in the right temple. Clinical and radiological diagnosis as well as treatment by an interdisciplinary team are reported. Results: All patients became blind on the right side despite immediate surgery including reconstruction of the injured bones and soft tissues. Three of four patients suffered severe functional defects in the left eye; one of them is now blind. Conclusion: Orbital gunshot wounds are severe injuries. The prognosis depends on the course of the bullet and the interdisciplinary care.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Poaceae ; Pooideae ; rDNA sequences ; Molecular phylogeny
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Phylogenetic relationships of the Poaceae subfamily, Pooideae, were estimated from the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The entire ITS region of 25 species belonging to 19 genera representing seven tribes was directly sequenced from polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified DNA fragments. The published sequence of rice, Oryza saliva, was used as the outgroup. Sequences of these taxa were analyzed with maximum parsimony (PAUP) and the neighbor-joining distance method (NJ). Among the tribes, the Stipeae, Meliceae and Brachypodieae, all with small chromosomes and a basic number more than x=7, diverged in succession. The Poeae, Aveneae, Bromeae and Triticeae, with large chromosomes and a basic number of x=7, form a monophyletic clade. The Poeae and Aveneae are the sister group of the Bromeae and Triticeae. On the ITS tree, the Brachypodieae is distantly related to the Triticeae and Bromeae, which differs from the phylogenies based on restriction-site variation of cpDNA and morphological characters. The phylogenetic relationships of the seven pooid tribes inferred from the ITS sequences are highly concordant with the cytogenetic evidence that the reduction in chromosome number and the increase in chromosome size evolved only once in the pooids and pre-dated the divergence of the Poeae, Aveneae, Bromeae and Triticeae. This paper reports factually on available data; however, the USDA neither guarantees nor warrants the standard of the product, and the use of the name by USDA implies no approval of the product to the exclusion of others that may also be suitable
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Cent-quarante patients opérés pour fracture de la hanche, par hémiarthroplastie ou par ostéosynthèse, ont été soumis la première semaine post-opératoire, à des mesures sériées du taux de C. réactive protéine (CRP) dans le sérum et de la vitesse de sédimentation (V.S). Nos mesures n'ont pas étés triées et ont inclus les patients présentant des complications mineures ou majeures pré- ou post-opératoires. Dans les cas sans complications, le taux de la V. S s'élève de façon variable durant la semaine, tandis que la CRP présente une courbe différente avec une augmentation rapide des valeurs de base jusqu'à un maximum, d'une valeur moyenne de 1452 nmol/l au deuxième jour post-opératoire. Dès lors, les taux régressent à une valeur moyenne de 352 nmol/l au septième jour. Du deuxième au cinquième jour les taux de CRP baissent de 61%, du deuxième au septième jour de 76%. Dans les cas de pneumonie post-opératoire et d'infection locale profonde, les taux de CRP sont restés significativement élevés, tandis que les infections mineures telles que simple cystite, bronchite ou infection superficielle de la plaie n'ont pas influencé les variations normales post-opératoires des taux de CRP. A l'inverse, les complications post-opératoires n'ont aucun effet sur la V. S durant la première semaine. Il semble donc que les mesures sériées de la CRP constituent un paramètre plus fiable que celles de la V. S dans le dépistage précoce des complications septiques majeures post-opératoires.
    Notes: Summary Serial measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR) were performed during the week after operation in 140 patients with hip fractures. There was no selection, and patients with minor or major complications before or after operation were included. In uncomplicated cases, the ESR was variably raised during the first week, whereas the CRP showed a distinct pattern with a rapid increase on the second day; it then decreased by the 7th day. In cases with early postoperative bronchopneumonia and deep wound infection, the CRP was high, but minor infections did not influence the usual levels. Complications had no effect on the ESR during the 1st week.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1433-0407
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Fazialisparese ; Keratopathie ; Bleigewicht ; Lid loading ; Key words Facial palsy ; Keratopathy ; Lead weights ; Lid loading
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Background: For prophylaxis or therapy of lagophthalmic keratopathy ointment application or hour glass dressing is indicated. The hour glass dressing has the disadvantage of a continuous visual impairment by steaming up of the moisture chamber. The main problem for the patients is the strong subjective feeling of physical handicap. A therapeutic alternative is the gravity dependent lidloading, which is known as gold implantation in cases of irreversible lagophthalmos. Methods and patients: By lead weights of 0,8 to 2,0 g, which are fixed to the upper lid by a foil glueing on both sides (Tesafix) or in allergic patients by an adhesive layer, well tolerated by the skin (Combihesive), the lidclosure can become restored without impairment of lidopening. In a controlled study the described method was first tested on 10 normal persons and than applied to 22 patients with lagophthalmos. Meanwhile the new method was applied to 32 further patients. Results: The „liddynamic“ procedure is effective and well tolerated; it is more accepted, especially during the day, because of better visual function and better cosmetics. The hour glass dressing, is still of importance in serious cases of kerathopathy during the night. Conclusion:“lidloading” with lead weights, which are glued by an adhesive layer to the upper lid, can be recommended as a new method in cases of reversible lagophthalmos or as a preparing step before a gold implantation.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Hintergrund: Zur Prophylaxe oder Therapie einer Keratopathia e lagophthalmo werden üblicherweise Augensalben oder ein Uhrglasverband verordnet. Insbesondere beim Uhrglasverband kommt es aber durch die feuchte Kammer zum inneren Beschlagen des Sichtglases mit erheblich herabgesetztem Visus. In jedem Fall ist die als Behinderung empfundene Lidschlußfehlfunktion nach wie vor gegeben. Als Alternative bietet sich das schwerkraftabhängige „lidloading“ an, welches bisher nur bei irreversiblen Formen des Lagophthalmus mittels Goldimplantationen in das Oberlid durchgeführt wurde. Methode und Patienten: Durch ein Bleigewicht von 0,8 bis 2,0 g, das mittels einer beidseitig klebenden Folie (z. B. Tesafix) oder bei Allergikern mit Hilfe einer hautverträglichen Trägersubstanz (Combihesive) auf dem Oberlid angebracht wird, läßt sich der fehlende Lidschluß bei Fazialisparese wiederherstellen, ohne daß die willkürliche Lidöffnung beeinträchtigt wird. Im Rahmen einer kontrollierten Studie wurde dieses zunächst an 10 gesunden Versuchspersonen und bei 22 Patienten mit Lagophthalmus geprüft und inzwischen bei weiteren 32 Patienten angewandt. Ergebnisse: Das „liddynamische“ Behandlungsverfahren hat sich als effektiv und gut verträglich erwiesen und wird insbesondere am Tage wegen Erhaltung der Sehfunktion sowie besserer Kosmetik leichter akzeptiert als ein Uhrglasverband. Dieser ist jedoch bei schwerer Kerathopathie während der nächtlichen Ruhephase initial sinnvoll. Schlußfolgerung: „Lidloading“ mit Bleigewichten, die mittels einer Trägerschicht auf das Oberlid geklebt werden, kann als neue Methode bei rückbildungsfähigen Formen von Lagophthalmus oder als Vorbereitung auf eine Goldimplantation empfohlen werden.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Keywords Proprioception ; Equilibrium ; Posture ; Reproducibility of results ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Abstract The Kinesthetic Ability Trainer (KAT 2000) is a balance platform designed for training and functional testing of the neuromuscular control system. Forty healthy and sports-active persons were tested and 1 month later retested to investigate the reliability of the KAT 2000 testing “one-leg static balance” and “two-leg dynamic balance”. A significant improvement at retesting on the same day was seen in both tests; furthermore the dynamic test result improved significantly with retesting 1 month later. The data obtained made it possible to calculate the 95% confidence limits for an unchanged test result for a single person and a group of persons. The results show a clear learning effect when the persons are retested, especially in the dynamic test. The KAT 2000 can be used as a tool for testing groups of persons both in short- and long-term studies, but it cannot be used for testing single persons due to the great variance in the test results. Further investigations involving injured persons are needed to determine the range of improvement after intervention.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    World journal of urology 13 (1995), S. 21-23 
    ISSN: 1433-8726
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the evaluation of lower-urinary-tract symptoms, uroflowmetry has played a major role for decades due to its noninvasiveness and simplicity to perform. However, several pitfalls have to be taken into account as mentioned in this review. They include artifacts, circadian changes, observer variation, minimal volume, association with infravesical obstruction, relevant variables, reference values, and clinical applicability. Thus, uroflow should be interpreted with proper caution.
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