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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Nicotine ; bioavailability ; nasal spray
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The absolute bioavailability of nicotine administered nasally, as drops to the nasal conchae and nasal septum, and as a nasal spray, has been studied in eight healthy volunteers. Single nasal doses of 1 mg nicotine were given and plasma concentrations of nicotine were followed for 6 h. Compared to an intravenous infusion of nicotine, the bioavailability of the nasal administrations was 60 to 75%. The rate of absorption was fast, the maximum concentration being reached after about 10 min. In the present study, there was no significant difference in the rate or extent of absorption between the different nasal treatments.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé On a examiné, 5,7 ans en moyenne (de 3 à 13) après le traumatisme, 39 patients de 34 ans d'âge moyen, traités orthopédiquement pour rupture unilatéral du ligament croisé antérieur (LCA). Le membre inférieur opposé a servi de contrôle. Le score d'activité de Tegner était significativement inférieur au niveau d'activité souhaité. Aucun patient n'était asymptomatique et seulement deux sur 39 pouvaient pratiquer des sports nécessitant des mouvements de pivotement. L'instabilité et la douleur étaient les symptômes les plus habituels. Le moment isokinétique de flexion et d'extension, le saut à cloche-pied, ainsi que la laxité du genou testée instrumentalement, étaient significativement altérés du côté blessé, lors de l'examen. La dégradation fonctionnelle n'était pas correlée avec les tests cliniques de laxité du genou. Peu de patients sont subjectivement satisfaits de la fonction de leur genou après rupture du LCA, malgré un programme particulier de réhabilitation.
    Notes: Summary Thirty-nine patients with ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) were treated conservatively and were subsequently examined at an average of 5.7 years after injury, the uninjured leg acting as a control. The Tegner activity score was significantly lower than the desired activity level. No patients were free of symptoms and only two could take part in sport which involved pivoting. The isokinetic knee extensor and flexor torques, as well as the one-leg-hop and instrumented knee joint laxity tests, were significantly impaired at follow-up. Functional impairment was not related to tests of knee joint laxity. Few patients were pleased with their subjective knee function after an ACL rupture despite thorough initial rehabilitation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Mannan and xylan present in bleached softwood dissolving pulp were found to be partially resistant to hemicellulases even after repeated enzyme treatment. Despite the additional effect of an endoglucanase from Gloeophyllum sepiarium, which increased the␣accessibility of mannan and xylan to a mannanase from Sclerotium rolfsii and to a xylanase from Thermomyces lanuginosus, the enzyme mixture solubilized only half of the hemicellulose present in the pulp. Half of the remaining hemicellulose present in the pulp appeared to be entrapped within the cellulose matrix while the other half was associated with lignin-carbohydrate complexes. The latter hemicellulose portion was isolated and characterized. Chromatography and spectroscopic techniques revealed the presence of two types of lignin-carbohydrate complex, a galactoglucomannan-lignin complex (degree of polymerization DP 50–60) and a xylan-lignin complex (DP 〉200).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Key words Epoxide hydrolase mRNA ; Mouse ; Peroxisome ; Clofibrate ; Hypolipidemic drug
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The soluble epoxide hydrolase mRNA level in liver was increased eight-fold upon administration of the hypolipidemic drug and peroxisome proliferator clofibrate for 7 days to mice. The soluble epoxide hydrolase mRNA was back at control levels within 1–2 days after clofibrate withdrawal. The highest expression was in liver, intestine and kidney. Lower levels were found in heart and muscle and very low levels were found in testes, lung, brain and spleen. The mRNA levels were increased in liver, kidney and heart by clofibrate.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Keratinocytes ; Interferon-gamma ; Class II antigens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Explanted human keratinocytes exposed in vitro to recombinant interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) were investigated for the appearance of mRNA for HLA-DR. Using in situ hybridization with a (35S)UTP-labelled HLA-DRβ cRNA probe, mRNA-positive cells were detected already within 6 h with maximal numbers of positive cells as well as the amount of mRNA per cell after 48 h. The corresponding protein HLA-DR, as analysed by immunoperoxidase staining, was detected on 20%–40% of the cells after 24 h and on almost all cells within 48 h. The expression of HLA-DQ and-DP antigens were always exceeded by that of HLA-DR. Whereas an increase in the concentration of IFN-γ above 50 U/ml did not affect the maximal level of HLA-DR reactive cells, there was a fourfold increase in the frequency of cells reactive with HLA-DQ and a twofold increase for HLA-DP when the IFN-γ concentration was raised from 50 to 500 U/ml. When IFN-γ was withdrawn from the cultures, HLA-DR mRNA and protein synthesis ceased — indicating the continuous need for IFN-γ to maintain the HLA-DR synthesis in keratinocytes.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; aetiology ; early growth ; breast feeding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Growth during the first years of life in relation to type of feeding in infancy was retrospectively studied in an unselected population-based group of 297 children who had been diagnosed with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus before the age of 15 years (probands) and 792 individually-matched referent subjects. Reliable data were collected from child welfare clinics. Probands weighed slightly less at birth but their weight gain at 6, 9, 18 and 30 months of age was significantly greater (p〈0.02) than that of referent children. The weight gain of children who had never been breast-fed was more marked than that of breast-fed children; this was found for both probands and referent children. But also among exclusively breast-fed children (〉 2 months), probands gained significantly more in weight from birth up to 18 and 30 months of age than exclusively breast-fed referent children. Early weight gain appears to be a risk factor for development of Type 1 diabetes. The lower weight gain in breast-fed compared to non-breast-fed children may explain the protective effect of breast feeding against Type 1 diabetes observed in several studies.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Key words Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, aetiology, early growth, breast feeding.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Growth during the first years of life in relation to type of feeding in infancy was retrospectively studied in an unselected population-based group of 297 children who had been diagnosed with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus before the age of 15 years (probands) and 792 individually-matched referent subjects. Reliable data were collected from child welfare clinics. Probands weighed slightly less at birth but their weight gain at 6, 9, 18 and 30 months of age was significantly greater (p 〈0.02) than that of referent children. The weight gain of children who had never been breast-fed was more marked than that of breast-fed children; this was found for both probands and referent children. But also among exclusively breast-fed children (〉2 months), probands gained significantly more in weight from birth up to 18 and 30 months of age than exclusively breast-fed referent children. Early weight gain appears to be a risk factor for development of Type 1 diabetes. The lower weight gain in breast-fed compared to non-breast-fed children may explain the protective effect of breast feeding against Type 1 diabetes observed in several studies. [Diabetologia (1994) 37: 91–94]
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-3916
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Anhand einer in situ ausgeführten Knochen-Vital-Mikroskopie konnte bewiesen werden, daß ein auf den Kaninchenschenkel ausgeübter Manschettendruck von 300 mm Hg ausreicht, um einen vollkommenen vaskularen Stillstand in der Tibia-Rinde zu verursachen. Eine über 30 min durch Manschette herbeigeführte Ischaemie des Gewebes zeigte während einer Beobachtungszeit von 30 Tagen keinerlei entgegenwirkende Reaktion im Knochengewebe. Lokal verursachte isolierte drei- bzw. sechsstündige Knochen-Ischaemie zeigte Entzündungsprozesse. Bei der sechsstündigen Ischaemie wurde nach 4–6 Wochen eine Knochen-Resorption offensichtlich.
    Notes: Summary With in situ bone vital microscopy it was demonstrated that a cuff pressure of 300 mm Hg applied over the rabbit thigh is sufficient to cause a complete vascular standstill in the tibial cortex. Cuff-induced tissue ischemia applied for 30 min did not result in any adverse bone tissue reactions over a follow-up period of 30 days. Locally applied isolated bone ischemia for 3 or 6 h resulted in an inflammatory response, and 4–6 weeks after the 6-h ischemia bone resorption was evident.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Key words. Development; differentiation; regeneration; neuron; glia.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The central nervous system is generated from neural stem cells during embryonic development. These cells are multipotent and generate neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The last few years it has been found that there are populations of stem cells also in the adult mammalian brain and spinal cord. In this paper, we review the recent development in the field of embryonic and adult neural stem cells.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Survival — Bone mineral density — Osteoporosis — Epidemiology.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and survival in both sexes and to compare BMD with other established risk factors such as blood pressure and cholesterol. A population-based prospective study of 1924 individuals (850 men, 1074 women) was performed in Göteborg from 1980 to 1983. Measurements of BMD were obtained in 1468 (76%) of the participants (653 men, 815 women). This selection of individuals generated 10,965 person years, and death was registered for 289 men and 197 women in the 7-year period (2661 days) after bone mineral measurement. Later information on date of death was obtained from the official population register. This information covers 7 years from the time of survey of the last examined participant (in Dec. 1983). At the beginning of the study, BMD was measured in the calcaneus by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA), and blood pressure, serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, and body mass index (BMI) were also recorded. The study was coordinated with the National Register of Causes of Death and the National Cancer Register. A modified version of the Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate and determine the age-adjusted relations between nontrauma mortality and BMD. When the various quartiles of BMD were compared prospectively from 70, 75, and 79 years of age with survival figures during the 2661-day follow-up period, the first and the second quartiles with the lowest BMD at entry showed the lowest survival rate in both men (P= 0.01) and women (P= 0.01). A decrease of 1 SD of BMD in a univariate analysis was associated with a 1.39-fold increase in mortality in both men (95% confidence interval 1.25–1.56, P 〈 0.001) and women (95% confidence interval 1.22–1.58, P 〈 0.001), and a multivariate analysis demonstrated a relative risk of 1.23 (95% confidence interval 1.10–1.41, P 〈 0.001) in men and 1.19 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.39, P= 0.019) in women. All relations were adjusted for sex, age, and follow-up. This study indicates that BMD is a predictor of survival, especially for subjects over 70. Bone mineral density was found to be a better predictor of death than blood pressure and cholesterol. This study indicates that, after adjustments have been made for diseases, low bone mass is an independent predictor of mortality and might be a marker of general health or functional aging. Its measurement might therefore be a valuable tool in general health investigations.
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