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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Eddy covariance Primary productivity Wetlands Water use efficiency
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. Fluxes of CO2 and H2O vapour from dense stands of the C4 emergent macrophyte grass Echinochloa polystachya were measured by eddy covariance in both the low water (LW) and high water (HW, flooded) phases of the annual Amazon river cycle at Manaus, Brazil. Typical clear-sky midday CO2 uptake rates by the vegetation stand (including detritus, sediment or water surface) were 30 and 35 µmol CO2 (ground) m–2 s–1 in the LW and HW periods, respectively. A rectangular hyperbola model fitted the responses of "instantaneous" (20- or 30-min average) net CO2 exchange rates to incident photosynthetic photon flux densities (PFD) well. Stand evaporation rates were linearly related to PFD. The major difference in CO2 uptake rates between the two periods was the larger respiration flux during LW due to the CO2 efflux from sediment, roots and litter. Integrated 20- or 30-min fluxes were used to derive relationships between daily CO2 and H2O vapour fluxes and incident radiation. The daily CO2 fluxes were almost linearly related to incident radiation, but there was evidence of saturation at the highest daily radiation totals. Annual productivity estimated from the daily model in 1996–1997 agreed closely with that previously estimated for 1985–1986 from a leaf-scale photosynthetic model, but were some 15% less than those derived at that time from biomass harvests. Both CO2 uptake and water use efficiency were comparable with those found in fertilised maize fields in warm temperate conditions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: bioturbation ; diversity ; macrofauna ; meiofauna ; disturbance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Over 2 years, experiments were conducted to compare the effects of sediment disturbance by different bioturbating, macrofaunal organisms on the diversity and structure of the associated infaunal community. The four species investigated were the bivalves Nuculoma tenuis (Montagu, 1808) and Abra alba (Wood, 1802), the heart urchin Brissopsis lyrifera (Forbes, 1841), and the burrowing decapod Calocaris macandreae (Bell, 1846). These organisms were chosen to allow assessment of the effects of contrasting feeding activities and body sizes of the bioturbating species on the diversity of the macrobenthic communities. Bioturbation by the sub-surface deposit feeders N. tenuis and B. lyrifera promoted higher levels of α and β diversity in treatments exposed to intermediate levels of disturbance. Whilst no such ‘intermediate response’ was demonstrated for A. alba or C. macandreae, it was evident that changes in the associated fauna were influenced by the feeding type of the bioturbating organism responsible. It was also shown that different elements of the associated community responded differently to biotic disturbance. The results indicate that the variability in density and distribution of such bioturbators are important factors in structuring infaunal communities, and in setting and maintaining levels of diversity in apparently homogeneous areas.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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