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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2021
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract  The structures of deuterated pyrochroite, Mn(OD)2 and β−Cο(OD)2 have been refined using the Rietveld method and neutron powder diffraction data collected in an opposed-anvil high pressure (Paris-Edinburgh) cell from room pressure to 9 GPa. The equation of state for Mn(OD)2 was determined (K=41(3) GPa for fixed K′=4.7) and found to be consistent with previous studies of the isostructural brucite, Mg(OD)2. The compressibility of β−Cο(OD)2 on the other hand is apparently anomalous. The c-axis initially decreases at 3 times the rate of decrease of the a-axis; the ratio decreases to about 1.5 at an estimated 6 GPa before increasing again beyond this pressure. There is no obvious corresponding anomaly in the details of the atomic structure. In both materials there is an increase in the D-site disorder with pressure. A split-site model for the D-positions best fits the data at pressures above 8 GPa. There is no statistically significant increase in the O-D interatomic distance at increased pressure while the hydrogen bonding interaction D...O appears to increase as this distance decreases and the O-D...O angle increases. The intramolecular O-D bond valences, determined indirectly from the intermolecular D...O distances, decrease steadily for both materials as pressure is increased.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-9710
    Keywords: set-aside lands ; bioassay ; Lasius flavus ; Lasius alienus ; Formica rufibarbis ; Calluna vulgaris ; ant-mounds ; ant-plant interactions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Nest-mounds of Lasius flavus, Lasius alienus and Formica rufibarbis are mainly on north-facing slopes with a markedly patchy distribution at Gimritz, northwest of Halle (Saale). Nest-mound soils had higher sodium and potassium levels but lower phosphorus and nitrogen levels than soils away from mounds. Moisture content was lower but soil pH was significantly higher in nest-mound soils. However, there was no difference in the relative abundance of plants of alkaline or acid soils growing on mounds compared to plants off mounds and no significant difference between the numbers of nitrophilous plants on and off mounds. Fewer plant species (35 spp.) in total occurred on mounds than off mounds (42 spp.). Plant species richness and total plant cover was significantly less on the nest-mounds than off the mounds. Similarly, the mean number of grass (1.39 spp dm−2) and forb species (1.13 spp dm−2) on mounds was lower than the mean number of grass (1.99 spp dm−2) and forb species (1.91 spp dm−2) off mounds. Some shrubs and forbs had higher occurrence and cover on the mounds, although only in Calluna vulgaris, Thymus serpyllum and Cerastium arvense was this difference particularly marked. Ant nest-mounds may favour plant species that cannot compete with tall grasses on unmanaged, set-aside meadows.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Hyperfine interactions 128 (2000), S. 245-254 
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Progress in high-pressure and neutron scattering methods has recently allowed measurements of phonon dispersion curves of simple solids at high pressures to 10 GPa. In this technique single crystals of 10–25 mm3 volume are compressed by the Paris-Edinburgh cell and the phonon frequencies are measured on high-flux triple axis spectrometers. Detailed studies of the lattice dynamics of low-compressible systems are feasible, including measurements of mode Grüneisen parameters, elastic constants, and precursor effects of phase transitions. We describe the experimental set-up and illustrate its potential by results on semiconductors (Ge and GaSb) and metals (Fe and Zn) obtained at the LLB (Saclay) and ILL (Grenoble) reactor sources.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Polymer bulletin 8 (1982), S. 351-358 
    ISSN: 1436-2449
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary From light scattering measurements in the system polystyrene-cyclohexane-acetone within the temperature range from 288 to 323 K it is concluded that the surface of the reduced chemical potential of the solvent as function of solvent composition and temperature exhibits the characteristics of true cosolvency. The influence of cyclohexane-acetone ratio on the temperature dependence of the corresponding enthalpy and entropy parameters is discussed. The cosolvency effects are evidenced also by studies of the STAUDINGER index at 34.5° C over the whole range of the ternary system. Properties of the binary solvent mixture cyclohexane-acetone, i. e. excess volume and viscosity, indicate that acetone clustering breaks down by dilution with cyclohexane. Consequently, the observed true cosolvency may be interpreted as caused by the combined action of cyclohexane and non-associated acetone.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1436-2449
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary It is demonstrated that dilute solution light —scattering experiments under ‘optical θconditions’ offer rapid and reliable judgement of the interaction parameters in polymer blends. This has been verified with miscible blends of polystyrene with poly(vinylmethylether) and with the immiscible pair polystyrene —poly(vinylisobutylether). The capabilities of the optical θ-approach in order to derive the influence of polymerpolymer interaction on chain dimensions are discussed shortly.
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