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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0452
    Keywords: Key words: Distributed systems – Event abstraction – Causality – Precedence relation – Partial order – Vector time – Logical time
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract. An important problem in analyzing distributed computations is the amount of information. In event-based models, even for simple applications, the number of events is large and the causal structure is complex. Event abstraction can be used to reduce the apparent complexity of a distributed computation. This paper discusses one important aspect of event abstraction: causality among abstract events. Following Lamport [24], two causality relations are defined on abstract events, called weak and strong precedence. A general theoretical framework based on logical vector time is developed in which several meaningful timestamps for abstract events are derived. These timestamps can be used to efficiently determine causal relationships between arbitrary abstract events. The class of convex abstract events is identified as a subclass of abstract events that is general enough to be widely applicable and restricted enough to simplify timestamping schemes used for characterizing weak precedence. We explain why such a simplification seems not possible for strong precedence.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Keywords: Key words Milk composition ; Lactation ; Calcium ; Bats ; Phyllostomatidae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Growth rates of mammalian young are closely linked to the ability of the mother to provide nutrients; thus, milk composition and yield provide a direct measure of maternal investment during lactation in many mammals. We studied changes in milk composition and output throughout lactation in a free-ranging population of the omnivorous bat, Phyllostomus hastatus. Fat and dry matter of milk increased from 9 to 21% and from 21 to 35% of wet mass, respectively, throughout lactation. Energy increased from 6 to 9 kJ · g−1 wet mass, primarily due to the increase in fat concentration. Total sugar levels decreased slightly but non-significantly. Mean sugar level was 4.0% of wet mass. Protein concentration increased from 6 to 11% of wet mass at peak lactation and then decreased as pups approached weaning age. Total milk energy output until pups began to forage was 3609 kJ. Milk levels of Mg, Fe, Ca, K, and Na averaged 0.55 ± 0.26, 0.23 ± 0.2, 8.75 ± 4.17, 5.42 ± 2.11, and 9.87 ± 4.3 mg · g−1 dry matter, respectively. Of the minerals studied, calcium appears to be most limiting in this species. The high degree of variability in foraging time, milk composition and milk yield between individuals at the same stage of lactation could potentially yield high variance in reproductive success among females of this polygynous species.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Automated software engineering 4 (1997), S. 179-197 
    ISSN: 1573-7535
    Keywords: Program understanding ; distributed debugging ; visualization ; Hermes ; program behavior ; abstraction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract Due to the complexity of distributed applications, understanding their behaviour is a challenging task. To remedy this problem, graphical visualizations of distributed executions in the form of process-time diagrams are frequently employed. However, such process-time diagrams do not scale for long-running and complex distributed applications. To reduce the display complexity, abstract graphical views of an execution are frequently suggested. One commonly used abstraction is to group primitive events into abstract events. This paper discusses some of the problems encountered when analyzing executions at abstract levels and introduces the concept of convex abstract events. Such abstract events can be used to reason about executions at higher levels, facilitating program development, debugging, and maintenance. We discuss some fundamental aspects, such as the precedence relation and its efficient detection, for abstract events. The paper also presents a graphical representation for convex abstract events which can easily be included in process-time diagrams. Poet, our visualization tool, was enhanced with a facility to display abstract events. Using a non-trivial distributed application, examples of the resulting abstract execution visualizations are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cluster computing 3 (2000), S. 231-243 
    ISSN: 1573-7543
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract Event visualization tools are commonly used to facilitate the debugging of parallel or distributed applications, but they are insufficient for full debugging purposes. The need for traditional debugging operations, such as single stepping, is often overlooked in these tools. When integrating such operations, the issue of concurrency needs to be addressed. This paper justifies and describes three single-stepping operations that we found suitable for partially-ordered executions: global-step, step-over and step-in. The description of these operations is based on a sound theoretical framework. This framework can serve as a basis to extend the operations to deal with specific properties of event visualization tools. For example, abstraction techniques are often used to reduce the overwhelming amount of detail presented to the user when visualizing non-trivial executions. These abstraction operations introduce additional problems for single stepping. The paper discusses the problems induced by two different abstraction operations in the context of a specific event visualization tool, Poet, and describes how the single-stepping operations are adapted to deal with these problems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Keywords: Chiroptera ; Muscle development ; Ontogeny of flight ; Postnatal growth ; Muscle histochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Postnatal changes in wing morphology, flight ability, muscle morphology, and histochemistry were investigated in the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus. The pectoralis major, acromiodeltoideus, and quadriceps femoris muscles were examined using stains for myofibrillar ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and mitochondrial α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (α-GPDH) enzyme reactions. Bats first exhibited spontaneous, drop-evoked flapping behavior at 10 days, short horizontal flight at 17 days, and sustained flight at 24 days of age. Wing loading decreased and aspect ratio increased during postnatal development, each reaching adult range before the onset of sustained flight. Histochemically, fibers from the three muscles were undifferentiated at birth and had lower oxidative and glycolytic capacities compared to other age groups. Cross-sectional areas of fibers from the pectoralis and acromiodeltoideus muscles increased significantly at an age when dropevoked flapping behavior was first observed, suggesting that the neuromuscular mechanism controlling flapping did not develop until this time. Throughout the postnatal growth period, pectoralis and acromiodeltoideus muscle mass and fiber cross-sectional area increased significantly. By day 17 the pectoralis muscle had become differentiated in glycolytic capacity, as indicated by the mosaic staining pattern for α-GPDH. By contrast, the quadriceps fibers were relatively large at birth and slowly increased in size during the postnatal period. Fiber differentiation was evident at the time young bats began to fly, as indicated by a mosaic pattern of staining for myosin ATPase. These results indicate that flight muscles (pectoralis and acromiodeltoideus) are less well developed at birth and undergo rapid development just before the onset of flight. By contrast the quadriceps femoris muscle, which is required for postural control, is more developed at birth than the flight muscles and grows more slowly during subsequent development.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7055
    Keywords: bats ; convergence ; tent architecture ; tent-making behavior
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Fifteen species of neotropical and three species of paleotropical bats are known either to roost in or to make tents in over 80 species of vascular plants. We summarize the current knowledge of bat-tent architecture, report two new styles of tents (conical and apical) from the Paleotropics, compare the similarity in tents constructed, or used, by neotropical and paleotropical bats, and consider possible functions of tents. Seven styles of tents are known from the Neotropics, three (conical, palmate umbrella, and apical tents) are known from both the Neo- and the Paleotropics, and one (stem tent) is unique to the Paleotropics. In the Neotropics tent-roosting and/or tent-making appears to be a behavior unique to the diverse microchiropteran family Phyllostomidae (subfamily Phyllostomatinae: tribe Stenodermatini), and in the Paleotropics two members of the megachiropteran family Pteropodidae and one member of the microchiropteran family Vespertilionidae are known to construct or roost in tents. Despite the variety of plant taxa used by bats in tent construction, there appears to be a limited number of different leaf forms that can be altered by bats and used as tents. We suggest that the similarity in tent architecture observed among the neotropical and paleotropical bats is a consequence of convergence in leaf morphology among forest understory plants. The congruence in tent-making/roosting behavior observed in members of the Stenodermatini and the Pteropodidae (genusCynopterus) suggests a phylogenetic influence on these behaviors. The similarity in tent-making and/or tent-roosting behavior and life-history traits (small, 〈70 g, mostly foliage-roosting frugivores) among these divergent neotropical and paleotropical taxa supports a convergence hypothesis in which members of these groups have become ecological equivalents. Although actual tent-making has been observed in only one bat species to date, we suggest that the principal selective force leading to the evolution of tent-making is a polygynous mating system whereby males construct tents to gain access to females. Tents in turn provide resources that offer protection from predators and inclement weather.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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