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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Catalytic activity and immunoreactivity of glycogen phosphorylase were studied in pre- and postnatal rat brain. The catalytic activity was assayed in brain homogenates; immunoreactivity was investigated by immunoblot analysis using a monoclonal anti-bovine brain glycogen phosphorylase antibody. The cellular localization and intensity of immunoreactivity were analysed on paraffin-embedded sections utilizing the same monoclonal antibody. The catalytic activity increased 10-fold from embryonic day 16 to adult; immunoreactivity became detectable on embryonic day 16 and increased in intensity as the enzyme activity rose to adult values. The first cellular elements to be stained immunohistochemically were ependymal cells lining the ventricles, ependymal cells of the choroid plexus, meningeal cells and a selected population of neurons in the brain stem. The immunoreactivity of plexus cells and meningeal cells was reduced or absent in the adult rat brain. The earliest appearance of glycogen phosphorylase immunoreactivity in astroglial cells was seen at postnatal day 9 in the hippocampus. The staining pattern of the adult brain was reached at day 22 post partum. The developmental changes in glycogen deposition and in glycogen phophorylase activity and immunoreactivity may indicate a variable physiological role of glycogen metabolism for different cell types in the pre- and postnatal periods.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Neuronal localization was investigated of glycogen phosphorylase (GP) in ganglia of the peripheral nervous system of the rat. Immunofluorescence and immunoenzymatic procedures were applied with a monoclonal anti-bovine brain GP antibody on paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Immunoreactivity was only present in the somatic neurons of the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus in the brain stem and in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), but not in the autonomic neurons of the superior cervical ganglia or in the sensory nuclei of the spinal cord. GP immunoreactivity was present as early as day 1 after birth. In the adult rat, staining was present in neurons of different sizes, and to varying intensities. No relationship was apparent between the staining intensities and morphologically distinguishable types of neurons. In DRG, the type of reactivity was the same from cervical to sacral ganglia. The selected occurrence of GP in specific neurons of the peripheral nervous system in contrast to the ubiquitous occurrence in all astrocytes of the central nervous system may indicate a different role of neuronal glycogen compared to astrocytic glycogen.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Immunofluorescence double-labelling and immunoenzyme double-staining methods were used to examine the location of glycogen phosphorylase brain isozyme with the astrocyte markers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S-100 protein in formaldehydefixed, paraffin-embedded slices from adult rat brain. Astrocytes in the cerebellum and the hippocampus, which express GFAP or S-100 protein immunoreactivity, show glycogen phosphorylase immunoreactivity. Regional intensity and intracellular distribution of the three antigens vary characteristically. In ependymal cells, glycogen phosphorylase immunoreactivity is co-localized with S-100 protein immunoreactivity, but not with GFAP immunoreactivity. These findings confirm that glycogen phosphorylase in the rat brain is exclusively localized in astrocytes and ependymal cells. All astrocytes, as far as they express GFAP or S-100 protein, do contain glycogen phosphorylase.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
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    Springer
    Histochemistry and cell biology 87 (1987), S. 201-207 
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The introduction of acrylate resins (Lowicryl K 4M, LR White) into electronmicroscopic immunocytochemistry applied to embedded tissue (post-embedding method) has improved the localization of antigens because of a satisfactory preservation of both ultrastructure and antigenicity of tissues. Here we describe a method that allows double staining of intracellular and membranous determinants in ultrathin sections of nervous tissue and cultures of peripheral nervous system cells. Ultrathin sections of the rat central nervous system fixed on uncoated grids were stained first for MBP selectively on the one face, then the opposite face was stained for GFAP using monoclonal antibodies and indirect immunogold staining method (IGS). Cultured Schwann cells induced to express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens were stained for class. H antigens by pre-embedding method then followed by post-embedding IGS for the other intracytopasmic antigens.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Isolation of a viral agent (107) directly from brain explants of a 15-month-old heifer with symptoms of a sporadic encephalomyelitis is described. The virus shares properties with the paramyxovirus family. It grows in a variety of cell cultures from different species, and induces nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in infected cells. Nucleocapsids measuring 17 nm in diameter were found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of these cells when studied electron microscopically, thus indicating a close relationship of the agent to the measles-distemper-rinderpest group. No infectious virus was released from infected cells, although alignment of nucleocapsids was observed beneath the cell membrane, and no hemagglutinating activity could be detected with the methods employed. The 107 agent was compared serologically with parainfluenza viruses type 1, 2 and 3, simian virus 5, mumps and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), two bovine respiratory syncytial viruses and measles/subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, distemper and rinderpest viruses, always using 107 virus infected CV1 cells and antiserum of the different viruses in indirect FA tests. Positive FA reactions were observed only with two sera obtained from SSPE patients with high antibody titer to SSPE virus, and with one rabbit-anti-rinderpest serum. The titers of these sera to 107 virus, however, were significantly lower than those against homologous viruses. Five out of 9 sera from randomly selected healthy cattle showed antibody titers between 1:10 and 1:80 to 107 virus in FA tests. The significance of these results is discussed with respect to the epidemiology of SSPE in children and its possible implication with rinderpest in Europe.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Heme oxygenase-1 ; Heat shock protein-32 ; Traumatic brain injury ; Cerebral infarction ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Extracellular heme derived from hemoglobin following hemorrhage or released from dying cells induces the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, HSP-32) which metabolizes heme to the gaseous mediator carbon monoxide (CO), iron (Fe) and biliverdin. Biliverdin and its product bilirubin are powerful antioxidants. Thus, expression of HO-1 is considered to be a protective mechanism against oxidative stress and has been described in microglia, astrocytes and neurons following distinct experimental models of pathological alterations to the brain such as subarachnoidal hemorrhage, ischemia and traumatic brain injury (TBI) and in human neurodegenerative diseases. We have now analyzed the expression of HO-1 in human brains following TBI (n = 28; survival times: few minutes up to 6 months) and focal cerebral infarctions (FCI; n = 17; survival time: 〈 1 day up to months) by ¶immunohistochemistry. Follwing TBI, accumulation of ¶HO-1+ microglia/macrophages at the hemorrhagic lesion was detected as early as 6 h post trauma and was still pronounced after 6 months. In contrast, after FCI HO-1+ microglia/macrophages accumulated within focal hemorrhages only and were absent in non-hemorrhagic regions. Further, HO-1 was weakly expressed in astrocytes in the perifocal penumbra. In contrast to experimental data derived from rat focal ischemia, these results indicate a prolonged HO-1 expression in humans after brain injury.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Cell culture ; Cell line ; Glioma ; Calcium-binding proteins ; Microglia enzymology ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a Ca2+-binding peptide that constitutes a potential modulator of macrophage activation and function during the immune response of the brain. Peptides termed microglia response factor-1 or ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 have been reported to be identical with AIF-1. We have investigated the expression of AIF-1 in the rat C6 glioblastoma and 9L gliosarcoma tumor models and additionally assessed AIF-1 expression in a diverse range of human astrocytomas by immunohistochemistry. AIF-1 was expressed by activated microglial cells and a subset of infiltrating macrophages in areas of infiltrative tumor growth and in compact tumor areas in both rat and human gliomas. Double-labeling experiments in rats and humans characterized the nature and the functional status of AIF-1+ cells. AIF-1 expression was detected in cells expressing major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and in a subset of activated macrophages/microglial cells. All MRP-8+ cells coexpressed AIF-1. In humans, there was a strong correlation of AIF-1-expressing activated macrophages/microglial cells with tumor malignancy (P 〈 0.0001). These results suggest that AIF-1 defines a distinct subset of tumor-associated activated macrophages/ microglial cells.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Multidrug resistance ; P-glycoprotein ; Glial tumor ; Immunohistochemistry ; RNA analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The most consistantly reported alteration of multidrug-resistant carcinoma cells is the overexpression of a membrane glycoprotein, termed P-glycoprotein. In this study we examined whether the strong intrinsic chemotherapy resistance of glial tumors might be related to the expression of the MDR1 gene which codes for P-glycoprotein. Fourteen glial tumors were examined immunohistochemically using the monoclonal antibody C219. In addition, RNA samples of 11 of these tumors were analysed using a sensitive Northern blot assay. P-glycoprotein is expressed in all 14 glial tumors; the number of stained tumor cells, however, varied considerably ranging from 0.3% to 15%. There was no correlation between the number of MDR1-positive cells and the histological malignancy. Varying amounts of MDR1 mRNA were detectable in 7 from 11 examined tumors. The results of our study show that the MDR1 gene is expressed in human glial tumors and suggest that the multidrug transporter may contribute to the clinical non-responsiveness of these tumors to chemotherapy.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Glioma ; Multidrug resistance ; Chemotherapy ; Endothelial ; Blood brain barrier
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Human malignant gliomas are commonly resistant to chemotherapy. Here, we examined the role of the multidrug resistance (mdr) mechanism in the chemoresistance of these tumors, using a twofold approach: (i) by assessing a possible mdr phenotype before and after chronic drug exposure of glioma cells in vitro, and (ii) by assessing the modulation of expression of the mdr-associated P-glycoprotein (Pgp) using radiotherapy and serial cycles of chemotherapy in human glioblastoma patients in vivo. T98G, and to a lesser degree, LN-229 human malignant glioma cells exhibit a constitutive mdr phenotype as determined by the modulation of dye transport and by the augmentation of chemosensitivity by the mdr antagonist, verapamil. Thus, coexposure to verapamil enhances the cytotoxicity of vincristine, doxorubicin and VM26 in T98G cells and that of vincristine in LN-229 cells. Chronic exposure of the cells to low concentrations of vincristine and doxorubicin, but not VM26, topotecan or BCNU, moderately enhances the mdr-like phenotype, as assessed by drug expulsion assays. However, chronic exposure to increasing drug concentrations does not significantly alter the sensitivity to the respective drugs. These data are consistent with a constitutive, but not drug-inducible, mdr-like drug resistance in glioma cells in vitro. Immunocytochemical analysis of human malignant gliomas in vivo reveals that Pgp expression is more abundant in endothelial cells within the gliomas, than in the glioma cells proper. Importantly, Pgp expression is unaltered by radiochemotherapy, assessed by comparative immunocytochemistry of glioma specimens obtained serially before and after radiochemotherapy. We conclude that (i) glioma cells exhibit constitutive mdr-like drug resistance that is not significantly altered by chronic drug exposure in vitro; (ii) endothelial cells may play an important role in Pgp-mediated drug resistance of gliomas in vivo; (iii) radiotherapy and repeated chemotherapy cycles do not modulate Pgp expression in human malignant gliomas in vivo; (iv) there is preliminary evidence for a non-Pgp, verapamil-sensitive drug transport activity in glioma cells.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Stroke ; Prostaglandin ; Inflammation ; Tissue remodeling ; Secondary injury
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cyclooxygenases (COX; prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases) are key enzymes in the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostanoids which mediate inflammation, immunomodulation, mitogenesis, ovulation, fewer, apoptosis and blood flow. Here, we report COX-1 expression following focal cerebral infarctions (FCI). In healthy control brains, COX-1 was localized by immunohistochemistry to a few endothelial cells, single neurons and rare, evenly distributed brain microglia/macrophages. In infarctioned brains, COX-1+ cells accumulated highly significantly (P 〈 0.0001) in peri-infarctional areas and in the developing necrotic core early after infarction. Here, cell numbers remained persistently elevated up to several months post infarction. Further, clusters of COX-1+ cells were located in perivascular regions related to the Virchow-Robin space. Double-labeling experiments confirmed co-expression of COX-1 by CD68+ microglia/macrophages. Co-expression of the activation antigens HLA-DR, -DP, -DQ (MHC class II) or the macrophage inhibitor factor-related protein MRP-8 (S100A8) by most COX-1+ microglia/macrophages was only seen early after infarction. Thus, COX-1 appeared to be expressed in microglial cells regardless of their activation state. However, the prolonged accumulation of COX-1+ microglia/macrophages restricted to peri-infarctional areas enduring the acute post-ischemic inflammatory response points to a role of COX-1 in tissue remodeling or in the pathophysiology of secondary injury. We have identified localized, accumulated COX-1 expression as a potential pharmacological target following FCI. Therefore we suggest that therapeutic approaches based on selective COX-2 blocking might ¶not be sufficient for suppressing the local synthesis of prostanoids.
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