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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The effect of inorganic phosphate concentrations on antibiotic and extracellular protein production by Myxococcus coralloides D have been examined. Antibiotic production by growing cells of this myxobacterium was maximal at phosphate concentrations of 10–20 mM, but was inhibited by concentrations higher than 20 mM. The total extracellular protein and the extracellular protein per cell ratio were independent of phosphate levels in the culture broth.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Hypertelorism ; Crouzon ; Apert ; craniostenosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The surgical treatment of congenital or acquired craniofacial deformities is presented. All procedures are carried out in order to achieve a good functional and cosmetic correction of the deformity. In the authors' view the surgical results obtained by these procedures are better than those achieved with the classical or palliative methods.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Aplasia cutis congenita ; Scalp defects ; Congenital anomalies ; Three-dimensional computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Localised agenesis of the scalp is the most frequent patern in aplasia cutis congenita (ACC), a congenital absence of the skin and occasionally of deeper layers. Several clinical groups are characterised by the location and pattern of skin defects, associated malformations and the mode of inheritance. Death occurs in 20% of cases, secondary to the associated anomalies, to infections or to haemorrhage from ulceration of the sagittal sinus when there is also a defect of the underlying skull. In this latter case, we close the defect by two rotational scalp flaps (Orticochea technique) at birth. A three-dimensional CT study is useful for showing the extent of the skull defect and the deformity of the craniofacial complex and the changes in the bone after treatment.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Fusimotor neurones ; Muscles spindles ; Muscular afferences ; Locomotion ; Thalamic cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The firing patterns of α and γ efferent fibres and of group I and group II afferent fibres innervating the gastrocnemius muscle were observed during spontaneous locomotor movements in the thalamic cat. Multi-unit discharges of each kind of fibre were obtained by electronic sorting of the action potentials from the whole activity of a thin branch of gastrocnemius lateralis or medialis nerve. The main results were: (1) During the locomotor cycle the activity of the afferent and efferent populations was highly modulated. (2) α- and γ-motoneurones were co-activated within the locomotor cycle during ankle plantar-flexion. The γ discharge began to rise earlier and to fall later than did the α discharge. The amplitude of the γ discharge, unlike that of the α discharge, was largely independent of the vigour of walking. Between the cyclic discharges, most of γ populations were tonically active whereas α populations were silent. Subgroups of the α and γ populations were not usually activated according to the cell-size principle, but, the activation of the latest γ subgroup always preceded that of the earliest α subgroup. (3) Modulation of the group I and II afferent discharges was closely related to the cyclic length changes of the parent muscle. Fusimotor activation during the active shortening of gastrocnemius muscle prevented the afferent discharges from pausing. (4) The pattern of afferent and efferent activity during selective curarisation of the extrafusal junctions indicated that the discharge of static γ-motoneurones is modulated during the locomotor cycle. After curarisation of both extrafusal and intrafusal junctions, an efferent-discharge pattern of central origin persisted alternately in extensor- and flexor-muscle nerves (fictive locomotion). The durations of the fictive locomotor cycle and of the cyclic discharge in the sartorius nerve were increased as a consequence of the suppression of phasic afferent inputs to the C.N.S. (5) Maintained ankle dorsi-flexion slowed the fictive locomotor rhythm and elicited opposite effects, respectively excitation and depression, on the magnitude of the α and γ discharges. Maintained ankle plantar-flexion scarcely perturbed the duration of the fictive locomotor cycle, but the duration of the sartoriusnerve discharge lengthened at the expense of that of the gastrocnemius discharge. Both gastrocnemius α-and γ-motoneurones were depressed, the former considerably more than the latter. (6) The roles of the gastrocnemius afferents and γ-efferents during the locomotor cycle are discussed in the light of these results.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Fusimotor neurones ; Muscle spindles ; Muscular afferences ; Locomotion ; Thalamic cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The activity in α and γ efferent axon populations and in group I and group II afferent fibre populations innervating a flexor muscle, the sartorius medialis, was observed during spontaneous locomotor movements in the thalamic cat. Multi-unit discharges of each kind of fibre were obtained by electronic sorting of the action potentials from the overall activity of a thin, intact branch of the sartorius medialis nerve. The following results were obtained: (1) The γ-motoneurones have a phasic behaviour characterized by a single discharge period during the hip flexion (swing phase of the step-cycle). (2) The γ-motoneurones are co-activated with the homonymous α-motoneurones. (3) Between rhythmic α and γ discharges, i.e. during the hip extension (stance phase of the step cycle), both α- and γ-motoneurones were normally silent. However, in 5 out of 17 experiments, a few units of the γ population fired at very low frequency. (4) Two observations indicate that the γ-motoneurones that are co-activated with the α-motoneurones by central locomotor commands are predominantly of the static type. In actual locomotion, the rhythmic fusimotor discharges over-compensate the depressor effect on the firing rate of the group II afferents of the unloading of muscle spindles by the active shortening of the parent muscle. In fictive locomotion, when the transmission of the excitation is blocked by selective curarization in alpha skeleto-motor junctions alone, the rhythmic fusimotor discharges elicit in-phase modulations not only of the group I but also of the group II fibres. The group II afferent population consists almost entirely of fibres arising from spindle secondary endings which are located primarily on intrafusal muscle fibres whose contraction is exclusively controlled by static fusimotor motoneurones. In the two experimental circumstances, the analysis of the group I fibre discharge does not allow to decide whether dynamic γ motoneurones are firing or silent during rhythmic γ discharge. (5) The group I and group II afferent discharges during the step-cycle showed two frequency peaks, one static-fusimotor dependent while the contracting muscle shortened during the hip flexion (swing) phase, the other length-change dependent while the relaxed muscle was rapidly stretched during the first part of the hip extension (stance) phase. Then, during the second part of hip extension when the muscle was slowly stretched in the absence of fusimotor drive, the firing rate of the spindle afférents decreased to a low level. The spindle sensory endings during the extension phase showed low dynamic and static responsiveness like deefferented spindles. (6) The results obtained in sartorius medialis (flexor) muscle are discussed in comparison with the results previously obtained in gastrocnemii (extensor) muscles (Bessou et al. 1986). The consequences of the predominant activation of the static or dynamic fusimotor system in functionally different muscles are considered with respect to the proprioceptive or motor role of musclespindles during muscle contraction.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Sheep ; Mitochondrial DNA ; Physical mapping ; Gene localization ; Cloning ; Digoxigenin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Mitochondrial DNA from the liver of a single Rasa Aragonesa sheep has been isolated and characterized. The size of the genome, determined by restriction enzyme analysis, was found to be 16.58 kbp. The cleavage sites for the restriction endonucleases BamHI, HindIII, EcoRI, BglII, PvuII, BstEII and PstI were mapped, and the gene organization deduced through heterologous hybridization using different cloned fragments of the rat mitochondrial genome. Fragments representative of the entire sheep genome were cloned in plasmid vectors pGEM3Z and pUN121.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: RNA ; Mitochondria ; Rainbow trout ; Liver
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have isolated and, by electrophoresis, using agarose slab gels in the presence of methylmercury hydroxide, analyzed the mitochondrial RNA content of the liver of rainbow trout. The RNAs corresponding to most of the mitochondrial DNA-encoded genes have been identified. Furthermore, among the transcription products we have also identified the nature of the RNA 8 previously described in human mitochondria, and detected a novel transcript that may represent the mRNA for ND6.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Sheep ; Mitochondrial DNA ; D-Loop ; Tandem repeats
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The nucleotide sequence of the sheep mitochondrial DNA displacement-loop (D-loop) region and its flanking tRNA genes has been determined. Several conserved motifs among mammals have been identified along the 1189-bp sequence of the sheep control region: ten termination-associated sequences (TASs) and one conserved sequence block (CSB-1). CSB-2 and CSB-3, which are frequently found in most species, are not present in the sheep D-loop, which shows instead a short direct repeat at their usual localization. A long polypyrimidine tract between CSB-1 and the tRNAPhe gene is also present. Furthermore, the sheep mtDNA D-loop region displays tandem repeats in the left domain (adjacent to the tRNAPro gene) comprising three different termination-associated sequences (TAS-5, TAS-6 and TAS-7).
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Current genetics 5 (1982), S. 17-19 
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Yeast Killer Toxin ; dsRNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A wine-making Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain isolated in our laboratory produces two different killer toxins, each one encoded by one dsRNA plasmid. One toxin has the same specificity as the one produced by strain M437 described by Naumov, but the dsRNA plasmid which encodes it migrates slightly faster in poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The other toxin has not been previously described, and is encoded by a dsRNA fraction which migrates at a lower rate than the × fraction of M437. These two dsRNA plasmids can be maintained separately in different yeast strains.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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