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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Somatosensory evoked potential ; Gating ; H-reflex ; Voluntary movement ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) evoked by stimulation of the tibial nerve (TN) in the popliteal fossa, the sural nerve (Sur) at the lateral malleole, and an Achilles tendon (Achilles) tap were recorded before and during voluntary plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, and cocontraction of the ipsi- and contralateral foot in normal subjects. Suppression (gating) of the TN-SEP began around 60 ms before the onset of electromyographic activity (EMG), and became maximal 50–100 ms after the onset of EMG. Similar gating was observed for the SEP evoked by activation of muscle afferents (Achilles) and cutaneous afferents (Sur). The TN-SEP was similarly depressed at the onset of a plantarflexion as at the onset of dorsiflexion. A depression, although much smaller, was also observed at the onset of movement of the contralateral limb. The depression of the TN-SEP after the onset of EMG decreased when fast-conducting afferents were blocked by ischemia below the knee joint. The TN-SEP was equally depressed during tonic dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, and cocontraction of dorsi- and plantarflexors. The TN-SEP was depressed for up to 300 ms when preceded by stimulation of Sur or a biceps femoris tendon tap. Gating of lower limb SEPs thus appears to have both central and peripheral components of which neither seems to be specific for the muscle being contracted or the sensory afferents being stimulated. We encourage that caution is taken when drawing functional conclusions regarding movement-specific modulation of afferent inflow to the somatosensory cortex based on observations of gating of lower limb SEP.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Long-latency reflexes ; Magnetic brain stimulation ; Sensory feedback
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Stimulation of cutaneous foot afferents has been shown to evoke a facilitation of the tibialis anterior (TA) EMG-activity at a latency of 70–95 ms in the early and middle swing phase of human walking. The present study investigated the underlying mechanism for this facilitation. In those subjects in whom it was possible to elicit a reflex during tonic dorsiflexion while seated (6 out of 17 tested), the facilitation in the TA EMG evoked by stimulation of the sural nerve (3 shocks, 3-ms interval, 2.0–2.5× perception threshold) was found to have the same latency in the swing phase of walking. The facilitation observed during tonic dorsiflexion has been suggested to be – at least partly – mediated by a transcortical pathway. To investigate whether a similar mechanism contributes to the facilitation observed during walking, magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex (1.2× motor threshold) was applied in the early swing phase at different intervals in relation to the cutaneous stimulation in 17 subjects. In 13 of the subjects, the motor potentials evoked by the magnetic stimulation (MEPs) were more facilitated by prior sural-nerve stimulation (conditioning-test intervals of 50–80 ms) than the algebraic sum of the control MEP and the cutaneous facilitation in the EMG when evoked separately. In four of these subjects, a tibialis anterior H-reflex could also be evoked during walking. In none of the subjects was an increase of the H-reflex similar to that for the MEP observed. In five experiments on four subjects, MEPs evoked by magnetic and electrical cortical stimulation were compared. In four of these experiments, only the magnetically induced MEPs were facilitated by prior stimulation of the sural nerve. We suggest that a transcortical pathway may also contribute to late cutaneous reflexes during walking.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words H-reflex ; Motor units ; Motor evoked potentials ; Motoneuron recruitment ; Transcranial magnetic stimulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The responses of 34 extensor-carpi-radialis motor units to graded transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrical stimulation of the radial nerve were investigated in six human subjects. Simultaneously with the recording of the single motor-unit discharges, motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and H-reflexes evoked by the two types of stimulation were recorded by surface electrodes and expressed as a percentage of the maximal motor response (Mmax). Ten motor units were activated in the H-reflex when it was less than 5% of Mmax, but not in the MEP even when it was 15% of Mmax. The opposite was observed for three motor units. Eleven motor units were recruited by both stimuli, but with significantly different recruitment thresholds. Only ten motor units had a threshold similar to TMS and radial nerve stimulation. From these observations, we suggest that caution should be taken when making conclusions regarding motor cortical excitability based on changes in the size of MEPs, even when it is ensured that there are no similar changes in background EMG-activity or H-reflexes.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Basic fibroblast growth factor ; Heparan sulphate ; Beta-2-microglobulin ; Amyloidosis ; Haemodialysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A major constituent of the amyloid fibrils in dialysis-related amyloidosis is β2-microglobulin (β2-MG). Heparan sulphates (HS) co-localize with the amyloid fibrils and monocytes/macrophages are commonly found around amyloid deposits, but the role of HS in amyloidogenesis is not yet defined. HS have variable saccharide sequences and can interact specifically with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a potent chemotactic factor for the monocyte/macrophage. The present investigation was undertaken to look for a functional link between co-localized HS and the pathogenesis of dialysis-related amyloidosis. Using amyloid-enriched ligament, immunohistochemical localization was tested for β2-MG, endogenous bFGF, and bFGF-binding portions of HS. For the detection of bFGF-binding portions of HS, the ligament sections were incubated with exogenous bFGF and then with anti-bFGF antibody. The specificity of the interaction between bFGF and HS was established by confirming a concomitant loss of immunoreactivity during selective removal of HS with heparitinase. β2-MG, endogenous bFGF, and bFGF-binding portions of HS were detected between bundles of collagen. Endogenous bFGF and bFGF-binding portions of HS were not detected in more advanced amyloid lesions, whereas β2-MG and other portions of HS were detected. We propose that β2-MG, endogenous bFGF, and bFGF-binding portions of HS form a complex and localize in the early amyloid lesions of dialysis-related amyloidosis.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2234
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Kurven potentieller Energie von Systemen mit H-Brücken wurden im Fall von H2O-, CH3OH- und HCOOH-Dimeren und für das Hydrogen-Maleatanion mittels eines modifizierten CNDO-Verfahrens berechnet, wo für Rumpf-σ- und -π-Elektronen jeweils verschiedene Resonanzintegrale und verschiedene Bindungsparameter für =O und -O- verwendet und wo die Rumpfpotential-Integrale für O-H, C=O und O...O semiempirisch bestimmt werden. Die Resultate sind 1) eine Potentialkurve mit einem einfachen Minimum für lineare Ketten von H2O und CH3OH, 2) eine symmetrische Potentialkurve mit zwei Minima für das cyclische Diniere von HCOOH und 3) eine Potentialkurve mit einem flachen Minimum für das Maleatanion. Konfigurationsanalyse ergab einen Beitrag von 39% für die ionischen Strukturen.
    Notes: Abstract The potential energy curves of hydrogen-bonded systems were calculated for the water, methanol, and formic acid dimers and for the hydrogen maleate ion by a modified CNDO/2 method, the core resonance integrals betweenσ-electrons being distinguished from those betweenπ-electrons, the different bonding parameters being used for -O- and =O, and the core potential integralsV AB c for O-H, C=O, and O...O being determined semi-empirically. Consequently, the following results were obtained: 1) a potential energy curve with a single minimum atr(O-H)=0.95 Å and with a concavity near 1.70 Å for the linear chain dimers of water and methanol; 2) a symmetrical potential energy curve with two minima atr(O-H)=0.95 and 1.78 Å for the cyclic dimer of formic acid; 3) a flat-bottomed symmetrical potential energy curve for the hydrogen maleate ion. The configuration analysis method was applied to the hydrogen-bonded systems; the contributions of the covalent ((O-H-O)−1) and ionic (O−H+O−) structures being 54% and 39%, respectively, for the symmetrical hydrogen bonding of the hydrogen maleate ion.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Carbohydrates ; N-Sulfation ; O-Sulfation ; Immunohistochemistry ; Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Crescentic glomerulonephritis leads to a rapid loss of renal function. Although glomerular crescents are rich in extracellular matrix (ECM), the composition and genesis of the ECM are incompletely understood. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a major ECM molecule and has polymeric structure of great variability. Recent findings that alterations in HS epitopes are associated with renal pathology prompted us to hypothesize that specific HS epitopes might be expressed in the evolution of crescents. We reviewed clinical records of 724 patients who underwent renal biopsy and found 21 patients with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Immunohistochemistry was performed using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against well-defined HS epitopes. One mAb was directed against unsaturated uronic acid residues generated during the selective removal of HS by heparitinase (a), and a further two different mAbs against N-sulfate-enriched and O-sulfate-poor portions of HS (b). Results showed that mAb (a) reacted to ECM of normal, sclerosed and crescentic glomeruli and that mAbs (b) reacted strongly to ECM of fibrocellular crescents but not to fibrous crescents, the periglomerular areas and noncrescentic intraglomerular areas. We concluded there are regional differences in HS epitope expression, although HS are ubiquitous components of glomerular ECM. N-sulfate-enriched and O-sulfate-poor portions of HS might play a role in crescent formation.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Glioma ; Glial fibrillary acidic protein ; S-100 protein ; Homogeneously staining region ; Transforming growth factors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A human glioma cell line (YKG1), which was positively identified for glial fibrillary acidic (GFA) and S-100 proteins, was established from a surgical specimen of a patient with glioblastoma. Chromosome analysis of the cells revealed a homogeneously staining region (HSR) on a marker chromosome. The assay for transforming growth factors (TGFs) in the conditioned medium of the cell line revealed that it contained high levels of α- and β-type TGFs, which might regulate the growth of glioblastoma and influence on the peritumoral tissues.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
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    Applied physics 20 (1979), S. 125-127 
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 75.30
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract In order to better understand the problem of magnetic anisotropy in amorphous alloys produced by a rapidly quenching technique, in-plane magnetic anisotropy of amorphous (Fe1−x Co x (78Si10B12 alloys was measured by means of a torque magnetometer using a disk specimen made from the amorphous alloy ribbon. The amorphous ribbons were prepared by a single roller type quenching apparatus. It was found that the anisotropy had mostly twofold symmetry in all the alloy cases, and that the concentrationx dependence of the anisotropy constant behaved differently from that of the magnetostriction. Moreover, the anisotropy did not disappear by subsequent annealing at high temperatures where the internal stress relief and the crystallization were completed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: L3T4-positive cells ; Lymph nodes ; Contact hypersensitivity reaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 75.30
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract In order to make clear the origin of magnetic anisotropy of amorphous alloys produced by a single roller quenching method, the composition dependence of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy of cold-rolled and as-quenched amorphous (Fe1− x Ni x )78Si10B12 alloy systems was studied at room temperature. The twofold in-plane magnetic anisotropy constantK u of cold rolled and as-quenched specimen decreases with increase inx at the Fe-rich side, and increases drastically at aboutx=0.2. Beyondx=0.25,K u decreases gradually with further increase inx. From this study, it is emphasized that there is a clear correspondence between the atomic ratio of Fe to Ni at which the anomaly in magnetic anisotropy of the amorphous alloy occurs and the position of the fcc/bcc phase boundary in the Fe−Ni metal alloy system.
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