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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Key words Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma ; T cell ; CLA ; CD7
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (CBCL) are a group of malignant lymphomas with apparently distinct clinicopathological and immunophenotypical features. As in other B-cell lymphomas, the accompanying benign cell population in CBCL includes a variable number of T lymphocytes whose role is not well understood. In the present study we characterized the immunophenotype of these T cells and compared it with that of the reactive T-cell population in specific skin involvement by noncutaneous B-cell malignancies. Our results indicated that most T cells in both primary and secondary B-cell lymphomas were CLA– memory/effector helper T cells which differed from the currently known CLA+ memory/effector helper T lymphocytes of the skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) system. However, the endothelial CLA ligand, E-selectin, was expressed on dermal vessels. These results suggest that a B cell environment and/or a lack of epidermal involvement promote(s) the recruitment into the skin of a different, apparently less specific, subset of memory helper T cells from those seen in T-cell-mediated dermatoses.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We calculate scattering lengths and some effective range parameters for processes ππ → ππ, ππ →K¯k, K¯k → K¯k, the last at both 2π andK¯k thresholds. The calculations are made (i) using experimental data (when possible), (ii) using the Veneziano model.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Key words. UCP; thermogenesis; CGP-12177; β3-adrenergic agonist; mice.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The effects of chronic treatment with the β3- adrenergic receptor agonist CGP-12177 on uncoupling protein (UCP) synthesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), various white fat depots and skeletal muscle have been examined in the mouse (daily injection for 15 days at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg). The treatment increased the IBAT UCP content and led to the expression of UCP in inguinal white adipose tissue. The increase in IBAT UCP content took place in the absence of tissue hypertrophy, and despite the increase in total body UCP content, no changes in body weight were observed after the treatment. The results confirm that ectopic expression of UCP in non-BAT tissues can be induced after chronic adrenergic stimulation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The oxidation of glutathione and thioglycolic acid by pertechnetate ion has been studied. In each case a reaction mechanism is proposed which is in agreement with the experimental kinetic orders, and which satisfactorily accounts for all other experimental findings. Rate constants and Arrhenius parameters are reported.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Key words Brown adipocytes ; β-Estradiol ; Thermogenesis ; Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The effects of acute and chronic acclimation to cold on uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) levels, as well as on GDP-binding to mitochondria, cytochrome c oxidase activity and mitochondrial protein concentration in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of intact male and female rats have been analyzed. Results reveal that females rats are more sensitive to cold because their threshold temperature for the thermogenic response is set at a higher value (around 22°C) than that of males (around 18°C), hence leading to differences in BAT UCP1 levels between the sexes at different environmental temperatures. In vitro experiments showed that steroid hormones, β-estradiol, estrone and progesterone, can reduce norepinephrine-induced UCP1 synthesis in brown adipocytes differentiated in primary culture. Thus the different sex-associated response of cold-induced thermogenesis in rats does not appear to be explained by a direct action of sex steroids upon the adipocyte, implying that other factors in the thermogenic regulatory system must be involved.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: β3-adrenoceptor Cafeteria diet Obesity Sex-associated differences UCP1 UCP2
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Noradrenaline-dependent brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is activated by the cold and excess energy intake, largely depends on the activity of the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and is mediated mainly through the β3-adrenoceptor (β3-AR). We investigated the expression of ucp2, a gene that encodes a putative UCP1-like uncoupling protein, along with that of ucp1 and β 3-ar, in the interscapular BAT (IBAT) of male and female rats chronically fed a cafeteria diet. After 3 months on this diet, male rats attained a 34% excess body mass and showed IBAT hypertrophy and increased IBAT thermogenic potential, in terms of both UCP1 and UCP2 mRNA expression (both by 1.6-fold), UCP1 protein expression (by 1.75-fold) and GDP binding to IBAT mitochondria (by 2.2-fold); female rats attained a larger excess body weight (50%) and their IBAT, although hypertrophied, showed no signs of increased thermogenic potential per gram of tissue. Interestingly, the IBAT of female rats was already activated compared to males. Treatment of mouse brown adipocytes in primary culture with noradrenaline also triggered a dose-dependent increase of the levels of UCP1 mRNA and UCP2 mRNA. Retroregulatory down-regulation of the β3-AR mRNA levels was found in the two models used. The results support a physiological role for UCP2, along with UCP1, in rodent BAT thermogenesis.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
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    Springer
    Bioscience reports 11 (1991), S. 223-230 
    ISSN: 1573-4935
    Keywords: adsorption ; amino acids ; blood cell membranes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract It is well known that the amino acids in the blood are distributed between the plasma and inside the cells. This study was conducted to determine whether amino acids can be located adsorbed on blood cell membranes. The amino acid concentration in the deproteinized haemolysed blood was higher than that in the fraction of blood after removal of the blood cell membranes by centrifugation. These results showed that a pool of amino acids representing 21.1% of the whole blood cell amino acids was adsorbed on the blood cell membranes of adult Wistar rats. The non-polar amino acids showed high adsorption on the membrane, whereas out of the polar amino acid group, only the non-ionic amino acids did adsorb.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: 2-methoxyestradiol ; adipocytes ; cell proliferation ; cultured brown adipocytes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME), a naturally occurring mammalian metabolite of 17 β-estradiol, on adipocyte growth has been investigated in mouse brown adipose tissue precursor cells developed in primary culture. 2ME inhibits brown adipocyte proliferation in a dose-response manner (IC50 = 1.7 × 10-6 M for DNA synthesis), with much higher potency than its hormone precursor 17β-estradiol, and cells acquire the typical differentiated morphology - more round with a higher content of triglycerides. 2ME causes similar effects in the immortal brown adipocyte tumor-derived hibernoma cell line HIB 1B and the immortal 3T3-F442A white adipocyte line. These findings suggest a possible role for 2ME in adipocyte proliferation, and probably in the differentiation process, entering the cells in the adipogenic program.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2584
    Keywords: Bladder ; Foreign body ; Transuretral resection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Lower urinary tract symptoms is a well known presentation of the presence of foreign bodies inside the bladder. Most such cases are diagnosed by chance, while investigating unrelated conditions. We present the transvesical endoscopic extraction of a surgical sponge that migrated to the bladder six years after an inguinal hernioplasty.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1436-6215
    Keywords: Key words Obesity – feeding control – adipogenesis – thermogenesis – obesity genes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Obesity could well become the most common health problem of the 21st century. There are more opportunities to consume large quantities of food: big portions of tasty, varied food, at reasonable prices, are available everywhere. Moreover, our bodies are better adapted to combat weight loss than to combat weight gain, since for thousands of years our species evolved in circumstances where nutrients were in short supply. The response of each individual to diet and other environmental factors varies considerably, depending on the characteristics of his/her body weight control mechanism. The differentiating element in the future, especially as regards the dietary and pharmacological control of obesity, will be knowledge of an individual's possible response depending on his/her genetic background. Obesity can occur as a result of genetic or acquired changes in three main types of biochemical processes, which are the main focus of this review: a) feeding control, which determines the sensations of satiety and hunger through processes that depend on a interplay between internal signals (notably leptin) and environmental factors; b) energy efficiency, in particular the activation of thermogenesis mediated by uncoupling proteins (UCPs) that makes it possible to dissipate part of the energy contained in food as heat instead of accumulating it as fat, and c) adipogenesis, the process by which cells specialised in fat storage (adipocytes) are formed, which is controlled by an interplay of transcription factors, including memebers of the C/EBP, PPARγ and ADD families. The knowledge of a growing numbers of genes and molecules implicated in these three types of processes and of their metabolic relationships is leading toward a molecular understanding of the body weight regulatory system and is paving the way for new methods of obesity control, especially pharmacological but also nutritional and possibly involving genetic intervention.
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