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  • Springer  (615)
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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Oncology ; Toxicology ; Endocrinology ; Biomedicine ; Cancer Research ; Pharmacology/Toxicology ; Oncology ; Endocrinology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Discovery and Pharmacology of Nonsteroidal Estrogens and Antiestrogens -- Tamoxifen Goes Forward Alone -- Metabolites of Tamoxifen as the Basis of Drug Development -- Adjuvant Therapy – The Breakthrough -- The Wisconsin Story in the 1980’s: Discovery of Target Site Specific Estrogen Action -- Carcinogenesis and Tamoxifen -- Chemoprevention: Cinderella waiting for the ball -- Tamoxifen and Raloxifene head to head: The STAR TRIAL -- Acquired resistance to Tamoxifen: back to the beginning -- The legacy of Tamoxifen -- Appendix: Four decades of discovery in breast cancer research and treatment – an interview with V. Craig Jordan by Marc Poirot -- Selected Awards that Recognize the Contribution of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene to Medicine
    Abstract: Tamoxifen is a pioneering medicine for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. It is the first drug targeted therapy in cancer to be successful. Tamoxifen targets the tumor estrogen receptor. The therapy is known to have saved the lives of millions of women over the past 40 years. This monograph, written by V. Craig Jordan - known as the “father of tamoxifen” - and his Tamoxifen Team at the Georgetown University Washington DC, illustrates the journey of this milestone in medicine. It includes a personal interview with V. Craig Jordan about his four decades of discovery in breast cancer research and treatment. V. Craig Jordan was there for the birth of tamoxifen as he is credited for reinventing a “failed morning after contraceptive” to become the “gold standard” for the treatment of breast cancer. He contributed to every aspect of tamoxifen application in therapeutics and all aspects of tamoxifen’s pharmacology. He discovered the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and explored the new biology of estrogen-induced apoptosis
    Pages: XXII, 199 p. 54 illus., 32 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783034806640
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: metaclazepam ; benzodiazepines ; (KC-2547) ; N-desmethyl-methaclazepam KC-3755) ; pharmacokinetics ; old and young volunteers ; side-effects ; age effect
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A single-centre, open, Phase I-study comparison of the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of metaclazepam 10 mg, a new 1,4-benzodiazepine has been done in 10 older and 20 younger volunteers. No important age-related effect was found on the kinetics of metaclazepam or its N-desmethyl derivative, the principal metabolite in man.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of toxicology 6 (1935), S. 177-178 
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of toxicology 6 (1935), S. 178-178 
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Earthworm ; Soil moisture ; Soil respiration ; Biopores ; Food stress ; Wheat straw ; Aporrectodea spp. ; Allolobophora spp. ; Lumbricus spp.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Many soil properties influence earthworm populations and activity. To determine which properties are of significance, a broad collection of soils was investigated. Samples from these different soils were kept bare at one site in large plots (3Mg soil per plot) to liminate crop and weather interference and to isolate the dominating mechanisms of earthworm effects. Earthworm density, biomass, and tunnelling activity were assessed after 5 years of bare fallow. All earthworm parameters varied strongly. Earthworms increased soil respiration by their tunnelling activity, and in turn increased microbial activity and propagated the loss of organic C. Earthworm abundance ranged from 12 to 274 m–2 and was about 10 times greater than on cropped soils. The range in abundance was mainly caused by variations in the numbers of juveniles. The average soil moisture content was the only soil property among the many properties investigated that was consistently correlated with earthworm abundance and biomass. Even after 5 years of bare fallow with almost no addition of fresh plant biomass and with little water loss by plant transpiration, the earthworm population was controlled by water stress and not by food stress. We therefore conclude that high water consumption by productive crops may degrade the habitat for geophagous earthworms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Earthworm ; Soil moisture ; Soil respiration ; Biopores ; Food stress ; Wheat straw ; Aporrectodea spp. ; Allolobophora spp. ; Lumbricus spp
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Many soil properties influence earthworm populations and activity. To determine which properties are of significance, a broad collection of soils was investigated. Samples from these different soils were kept bare at one site in large plots (3 Mg soil per plot) to liminate crop and weather interference and to isolate the dominating mechanisms of earthworm effects. Earthworm density, biomass, and tunnelling activity were assessed after 5 years of bare fallow. All earthworm parameters varied strongly. Earthworms increased soil respiration by their tunnelling activity, and in turn increased microbial activity and propagated the loss of organic C. Earthworm abundance ranged from 12 to 274 m-2 and was about 10 times greater than on cropped soils. The range in abundance was mainly caused by variations in the numbers of juveniles. The average soil moisture content was the only soil property among the many properties investigated that was consistently correlated with earthworm abundance and biomass. Even after 5 years of bare fallow with almost no addition of fresh plant biomass and with little water loss by plant transpiration, the earthworm population was controlled by water stress and not by food stress. We therefore conclude that high water consumption by productive crops may degrade the habitat for geophagous earthworms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Grip force ; Force control ; Parabolic flight ; Microgravity ; Hypergravity ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  In the present study, grip forces exerted against a stationary held object were recorded during parabolic flights. Such flight maneuvers induce changes of gravity with two periods of hypergravity, associated with a doubling of normal terrestrial gravity, and a 20 s period of microgravity. Accordingly, the object’s weight changed from being twice as heavy as normally experienced and weightless. Grip-force recordings demonstrated that force control was seriously disturbed only during the first experience of hyper- and microgravity, with the grip forces being exceedingly high and yielding irregular fluctuations. Thereafter, however, grip force traces were smooth, the force level was scaled to the object’s weight under normal and high-G conditions, and the grip force changed in parallel with the weight during the transitions between hyper- and microgravity. In addition, during weightlessness, when virtually no force was necessary to stabilize the object, a low force was established, which obviously represented a reasonable safety margin for preventing possible perturbations. Thus, all relevant aspects of grip-force control observed under normal gravity conditions were preserved during gravity changes induced by parabolic flights. Hence, grip-force control mechanisms were able to cope with hyper- and microgravity, either by incorporating relevant receptor signals, such as those originating from cutaneous mechanoreceptors, or by adequately including perceived gravity signals into control programs. However, the adaptation to the uncommon gravity conditions was not complete following the first experience; finer tuning of the control system to both hyper- and microgravity continued over the measurement interval, presumably with a longer observation period being necessary before a stable performance can be reached.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract CD44 isoforms have been implicated in tumor progression and metastasis formation. This study presents a thorough immunohistochemical analysis of CD44 standard ann isoform expression in normal human skin appendages and epidermis applying monoclonal antibodies against CD44s, CD44v3,-v4,-v5,-v6, and-v9. An improved immunohistochemical protocol with microwave-based antigen retrieval in paraffin section and heavy metal amplificatio of the diaminobenzidine reaction product provided enhanced resolution and sensitivity as compared to studies on frozen sections. The hair follile, the seborrheic and eccrine sweat glands were strongly positive for all CD44 isoforms studied. In the latter, the clear cells but not the dark (intercalated) cells were positive. The sudoriferous ducts adjacent to the glands were weakly positive for all CD44 isoforms and strongly positive near the skin surface. In the apocrine glands, the basal cells showed only a moderate positivity. The myoepithelial cells expressed only CD44s. In the epidermis, all CD44 isoforms were detectable, with strongest CD44 immunostaining in the lower third of the stratum spinosum and weaker staining in the stratum basale and the upper two-thirds of the stratum granulosum. The stratum granulosum and corneum were unreactive. Thus, a regional and cell type-specific CD44 expression was revealed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Isoforms of the transmembrane glycoprotein CD44, which are generated by alternative splicing of nine variant exons, have been implicated in tumor cell adhesion, invasion and metastatic spread and may be indicators of the degree of tumor differentiation. Since little is known about the distribution of CD44 in non-neoplastic neuroendocrine cell types, we systematically investigated 42 samples of tissue from different organs, including the pituitary gland, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland, lung, pancreas, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, appendix, and colon, immunohistochemically for the expression of CD44 standard and variant exon-encoded gene products (CD44v3, v4, v5, v6, v9). Furthermore, double immunolabeling for CD44 and a variety of peptide hormones was applied to characterize the different neuroendocrine cell types. Our results show that neuroendocrine cells derived from the neuroectoderm lack CD44 immunoreactivity. However, those originated from the endoderm exhibit a variable CD44 immunostaining which is related to their anatomical localization and the degree of differentiation irrespective of the hormone produced. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD44 positive neuroendocrine cells predominantly express CD44 isoforms of the epithelial type and that hyperplastic clusters of neuroendocrine cells of pancreatic ducts express CD44 most probably as a sign of dedifferentiation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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