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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The electric conductivity ofn-type silicon was measured as a function of the field intensity in different crystallographic directions at temperatures between 78 and 275 °K. From the data at medium fields (range of warm carriers) the coefficientsβ 0 andγ 0 ofSchmidt-Tiedemann's anisotropy theory were determined. Especially at low temperatures these coefficients are different for lightly and heavily doped crystals. The differences can be explained by the influence of ionized impurity scattering in addition to lattice scattering. The repopulation of the energy valleys of the conduction band as a function of the field intensity was calculated from the ratioγ 0/β 0 and — in the range of hot carriers — from the conductivities measured in 〈001〉 and 〈111〉 directions. A maximum increase of population of a cool valley was found to be between 0.5 and 1.2 of the zero-field population, depending on the particular sample, the field intensity being about 0.5 kV/cm and the lattice temperature 89 °K.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: “Durchgangs-Syndrom” ; Intellectual Disorder ; “Syndrom-Test” (Böcker) ; Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence Scale (Hawie) ; Adaptation Psychopathometric Measuring ; Statistical Revision ; Durchgangs-Syndrom ; Intelligenzstörungen ; Syndromtest Böcker ; Hamburg Wechsler Intelligenztest Hawie ; Hawie als psychopathometrisches Verfahren ; Statistischer Vergleich
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Wir untersuchten das Intelligenzverhalten während des Durchgangs-Syndroms (H. H. Wieck). Dazu wurden der von F. Böcker entwickelte Syndrom-Test und der von D. Wechsler beschriebene Intelligenztest in seiner deutschen Bearbeitung (Hawie) eingesetzt. Die statistische Bearbeitung des Materials ergab überindividuelle Charakteristica der gestörten Intelligenzfunktionen. Der zu psychomelrischen Zwecken konzipierte Hawie läßt sich bei nur geringfügiger Modifizierung der Methode auch als psychopathometrischer Test durchführen. Seine Ergebnisse müssen in quantitativer wie in qualitativer Hinsicht ausgewertet werden. Sie bieten dann wertvolle Hinweise auf das geistig-seelische Zustandsbild des Kranken. Die Punkteskalen von Syndrom-Test und Hawie sind qualitativ nicht ganz kongruent; sie divergieren in Richtung auf die schwereren Syndromstandien. Die Intelligenzstörungen werden mit zunehmender Funktionspsychose zunächst stärker, sind also scheinbar progredient. Sie bleiben aber rückbildungsfähig. Der Verlust an quantitativ meßbarer Intelligenzleistung wird mit der vorgenannten Einschränkung im Verlauf des reversiblen Syndroms gleichmäßig und parallel der übrigen Symptomatik kleiner. Gleiches gilt für die Teilbereiche verbaler und praktischer Intelligenz. Allerdings verhalten sich die Funktionsgruppen unterschiedlich während leichter und schwerer Psychoseprägung. Störungen erscheinen bei der verbalen später als bei der nichtverbalen Intelligenz. Ein verbales Leistungsminimum wird dagegen eher erreicht. Stark differenziert ist die Entwicklung umgrenzter intellektueller Prozesse in Form der Subtests gegenüber verschiedenen Syndromstadien. Mit zunehmender Psychose fällt die Einheit des intellektuellen Leistungsniveaus auseinander, die dem General-Faktor der Intelligenz nach C. Spearman entspricht. Die verschiedenen faktoriellen Entitäten geben dem Angriff funktionspsychotischer Störungen unterschiedlich nach.
    Notes: Summary In order to explore intelligence behaviour in the course of “Durchgangs-Syndrom” (H. H. Wieck), 30 patients were examined using the “Syndrom-Test” of F. Böcker and the German revision of the Wechsler Bellevue intelligence scale (Hawie). The statistical evaluation showed unusual characteristics of deterioration of intelligence. The Wechsler Bellevue intelligence scale (German revision Hawie) can by slight modifications easily be adapted for psychopathometric inquiry. The results are to be evaluated qualitatively as well as quantitatively, thus revealing valuable information about the actual mental state. The scales of “Syndrom-Test” and “Hawie” diverge towards severe grades of “Durchgangs-Syndrom”. Deterioration of intelligence seems to progress with increasing “Function-Psychosis” (H. H. Wieck) and vice-versa. IQ as well as certain verbal and nonverbal functions of intelligence are reduced parallel to all other symptoms of “Durchgangs-Syndrom”. Behavior of various mental function groups differs in light and severe grades of psychosis. Verbal intelligence efficiency is affected more and earlier than non-verbal intelligence. Wide differences result in the subtests of “Hawie” in the course of “Durchgangs-Syndrom”. In increasing organic psychosis the entity of intellectual efficiency gets lost, i.e. g-factor of C. Spearman decreases. Special factors differ in resistance to functional disturbances of “Durchgangs-Syndrom”.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The dependence of the electric conductivity on a d.c. electric field of medium intensity is measured for 3.5 ohm-cmp-type silicon and 0.9 ohm-cmp-type germanium. From these data and the symmetry properties of the cubic crystal lattice the dependence of the conductivity on crystal orientation is determined. Also, an analytical treatment is made for silicon by assuming a model of constant energy surfaces near momentumħk=0 which consists of spheroids of rotational symmetry penetrating each other. The usually accepted model of warped surfaces does not seem to be tractable. The ratio of effective masses parallel and perpendicular to the axis of rotation enters as a parameter which is determined by the experimental value of the conductivity anisotropy. This mass ratio for silicon at 275 °K is 3.25, at 193 °K 4.64 and at 77 °K 37. With germanium the observed anisotropy is stronger than the anisotropy calculated with any finite mass ratio which means that the model is not adequate.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Variance ; trace/gases ; stratosphere ; mixing length ; mixing surfaces
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The relative variances in stratospheric observations of longlived trace gases CH4, N2O, CF2Cl2, CFCl3 show large differences. These differences are greatly reduced when the local mean standard deviation is normalized to the local vertical gradient. This ratio, called ‘equivalent displacement height’ exhibits a characteristic vertical profile which is very similar for all the longlived trace gases, as well as for O3. With the help of this ratio, it is demonstrated that the variances are essentially due to natural causes, i.e., transport. Using the mixing length hypothesis a theoretical expression for the equivalent displacement height is derived. From it the meridional slope of the mixing surfaces and the mixing length can be calculated as function of the altitude. Additional information is obtained on the variance of that slope. The uncertainty of the measured mean trace gas profiles is defined.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Papilio demodocus ; Lepidoptera ; Papilionidae ; defensive secretion ; osmeterial secretion ; monoterpenes ; sesquiterpenes ; capillary GC ; injector programing ; GC-MS ; [13C]NMR
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The defensive osmeterial secretion of pre-final instar larvae of the citrus swallowtail,Papilio demodocus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was found to contain methyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, α-pinene, myrcene, limonene, β-phellandrene, (Z)-ocimene, (E)-ocimene, β-caryophyllene, (E)-β-farnesene, and germacrene-A, as well as a further number of unidentified sesquiterpenoid constituents. The presence of germacrene-A in the secretion was inferred from the formation of β-elemene under certain GC conditions. Larvae of the second, third, and fourth instars produce qualitatively similar secretions. Remarkable quantitative differences were found between the secretions of individual larvae. These variations could not be correlated with the diet on which the larvae were fed, their sex, instar, or color form. However, in a number of larvae the two prongs of the osmeterium were found to produce quantitatively different secretions.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Naturwissenschaften 43 (1956), S. 512-513 
    ISSN: 1432-1904
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1435-1803
    Keywords: regional myocardial ischemia ; lipid peroxidation ; scavenger action
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Dog experiments were performed to describe the time course of lipid peroxidation after various ischemic influences of the heart measured by formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), and the scavenger action determined by reduced glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Experimental groups consisted of control dogs having intact hearts and dogs with acute ramus descendens anterior ligature (LAD) having ischemic areas through 15, 30, 45 minutes and 1, 2, 3, 24 hours. Heart tissue for biochemical assays was excised from both the ischemic areas and from nonischemic left ventricle. The acute ischemia caused characteristic alterations in the biochemical parameters: MDA level gradually increased with its peak value being found at the end of 3 hours ligature. GSH levels decreased moderately, whereas SOD levels reduced sharply. As incrcased MDA formation indicates breakdown of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the membranes and decreaased GSH and SOD levels indicate impairment of the natural scavengering, the observed changes clearly outline the extent of disintegration of membrane structure and function.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1435-1803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1435-1803
    Keywords: myocardial infarct ; lipid peroxidation ; free oxygen radicals ; scavenger action ; synthetic antioxidant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Experiments were performed on dog hearts following coronary ligation and treatment with synthetic antioxidant of dihydroquinoline type. Experimental groups were: (i) control dogs, (ii) dogs with ligation of descendens anterior coronary branch, (iii) coronary ligated dogs with antioxidant pretreatment and (iv) dogs with coronary ligation and simultaneous antioxidant infusion therapy. The heart infarctionper se is accompanied by the disintegration of membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids expressed by increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and the impairment of natural scavenging characterized by the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content. The oral pretreatment with antioxidant for 8 days prevented or decreased the unfavourable pathobiochemical responses. The acute infusion therapy exerted no immediate protection, nonetheless, it could decrease the severity of pathological signs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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