Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The purpose of this paper is to report five patients with chronic secretory diarrhea (maximum stool volume greater than 1 liter per day, duration 6 weeks to 8 years) in whom we could find no evidence of an endocrine tumor or of surreptitious laxative ingestion. All except one had severe hypokalemia. There was apparent improvement after treatment with prednisone in two patients and loperamide in one. The diarrhea resolved spontaneously in three patients and has undergone several temporary remissions in one patient. The last patient died after a severe unremitting illness. Extensive investigations failed to establish the etiology, but intestinal perfusion (carried out in four of the five patients) revealed secretion or abnormally low absorption of water and electrolytes in the jejunum and abnormally low absorption in the colon. The management of patients with chronic watery diarrhea is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have investigated the effect of loperamide (4 mg tds) on the continence to a standard volume of rectally infused saline and anorectal manometry in 26 patients complaing of chronic diarrhea complicated by fecal incontinence and severe urgency. Each patient was treated for one week with loperamide (4 mg tds) and for one week with an identical placebo in a double-blind cross-over trial. Our results showed that as well as its established effects of improving stool consistency and reducing stool weight, frequency and episodes of incontinence and severe urgency, loperamide also significantly improved continence to a standard volume of rectally infused saline. This action was associated with an increase in the maximum basal sphincter pressure, an increase in the rectal volume required to abolish recovery of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex, and a reduction in rectal compliance. These results suggest that loperamide may have a specific action on the anal sphincter, which may aid continence in patients who complain of diarrhea and fecal incontinence.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: phenoperidine ; diazepam ; endoscopy ; pre-medication ; random and double blind ; upper gastrointestinal endoscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A variety of agents are used as premedication for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (U.G.E.). To our knowledge, no double blind studies have been performed to compare their value. In this study phenoperidine (2 mg i.v.) was compared with diazepam (5 mg i.v.) in 200 consecutive patients undergoing elective U.G.E. The study was randomized and double blind in regard to both endoscopists and patients. All patients were given atropine (0.4 mg i.v.) and a throat spray with 2% amethocaine. Patients who needed supplemental medication were given diazepam and excluded from final analysis. A graded questionnaire was recorded by endoscopists and patients after U.G.E., and a further anonymous questionnaire was returned by patients four days later. Statistical analysis revealed that phenoperidine was superior at facilitating intubation and providing more relaxation as judged by the endoscopist. Patient questionnaires, four days after U.G.E., indicated less distress during intubation and examination with phenoperidine. Nausea, vomiting, amnesia and phlebitis were uncommon after either phenoperidine or diazepam.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Hymenoscyphus ericae ; Oidiodendron griseum ; Paxillus involutus ; Rhizopogon roseolus ; Suillus bovinus ; Lignin degradation ; Ericoid and ectomycorrhizal fungi ; Soil ; Organic matter ; Decomposition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The ability of ericoid and ectomycorrhizal fungi to utilize 14C-labelled lignin and O14CH3-labelled dehydropolymer of coniferyl alcohol as sole C sources has been assessed in pure culture studies. The results indicate that ericoid mycorrhizal fungi are more effective in degrading lignin than ectomycorrhizal fungi. Amongst the ectomycorrhizal fungi the facultative mycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus degraded lignin more readily than those which are normally considered to be obligately mycorrhizal fungi such as Suillus bovinus and Rhizopogon roseolus. The importance of these lignin degrading capabilities is discussed in relation to the predominance of specific mycorrhiza forms along a gradient of increasing organic matter and hence lignin content of soil.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Methamidophos ; Pesticide ; Phosphoramidates ; Organophosphorus ; Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) ; Delayed neuropathy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The interaction with neural neuropathy target esterase (NTE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in vivo of methamidophos (O,S-dimethyl phosphorothioamidate), its resolved stereoisomers and five higher O-alkyl homologues has been examined along with the ability of these compounds to cause organophosphorus-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) in adult hens. For the lower homologues AChE was more sensitive than NTE and it was impossible to achieve high inhibition of NTE in vivo without both prophylaxis and therapy against acute anticholinesterase effects; for then-hexyl homologue high inhibition of NTE could be achieved without obvious anticholinesterase effects and spontaneous reactivation of inhibited AChE was seen as in vitro. The maximum tolerated dose ofl(−) methamidophos or of the ethyl oriso-propyl homologues did not inhibit NTE more than 60%, and surviving birds did not develop OPIDP. Then-propyl,n-butyl andn-hexyl compounds caused typical OPIDP at doses causing a peak of 70–95% inhibition of NTE in brain, spinal cord and sciatic nerve soon after dosing. Racemic methamidophos caused unusually mild OPIDP associated with very high inhibition of NTE at doses estimated to be 〉8 times the unprotected LD50 and thed-(+) isomer caused OPIDP at about 5−7× LD50. Clinical effects correlated with histopathology in 19 out of 20 examined birds. In contrast to results of many previous studies with organophosphates and phosphonates, all these cases of OPIDP were associated with formation of inhibited NTE which could be reactivated ex vivo by treatment of autopsy tissue with KF solution. It is not clear whether “aging” of inhibited NTE had occurred but with less associated stabilisation of the enzyme-phosphorus bond or whether, even without aging, the unusual N-unsubstituted phosphoramidate caused sufficient disturbance in or near the NTE target to initiate the same degenerative process as that caused typically by generation of “aged” organophosphorylated NTE.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Key words 5-Lipoxygenase inhibitors ; N-Hydroxyureas ; Nephrotoxicity ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The N-hydroxyurea derivatives 70C ((E)-N-{3-[3-(4-fluorophenoxy)phenyl]-1-(R,S)-methylprop-2-enyl}-N-hydroxyurea) and its (R) 225C and (S) 404C enantiomers, which were being developed as 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors for the treatment of certain allergic and inflammatory conditions, were found to cause severe glomerulonephropathy in the rat. The lesion appeared to be of greater severity in female rats compared with male rats. In addition, 70C and 225C treated animals appeared more severely affected than 404C treated animals. Detailed examination of the lesion in animals dosed with 225C showed that there was a clear relationship between the onset of the lesion and the dose given, i.e. the higher the dose the sooner the lesion developed. The earliest changes detected in the kidney by transmission electron microscopy were noted in the glomeruli, in which the visceral cells appeared enlarged and showed varying degrees of foot process loss. In the more advanced lesion, the degree of foot process loss became more obvious and changes in the kidney tubules were seen by light microscopy. The morphological changes were mirrored by a dose-related increase in water consumption, an increased kidney to body weight ratio and gastrointestinal oedema, suggesting impaired renal function. Shortly after the onset of foot process loss, decreases in the total plasma protein and albumin and increases in the plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, urea and creatinine were recorded. These changes, particularly the foot-process loss, together with increased proteinuria, hypoalbuminaemia, hypercholesterolaemia and lipaemia, are all characteristic of “minimal change nephrotic syndrome”. Because of the serious nature of the kidney lesion caused by these N-hydroxyureas in the rat, it was considered that it precluded their development as therapeutic agents for use in man.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The adrenergic innervation of the gut musculature has been compared in various vertebrates (two teleost fish, an amphibian, a reptile and a mammal) by the fluorescent histochemical localization of certain monoamines. Very few, if any, adrenergic nerves occur within the longitudinal gut muscle of any of these animals, except for the taenia coli of the guinea-pig caecum. In contrast, the circular smooth muscle coat is supplied by varicose adrenergic nerves. These nerve fibres are particularly numerous in the toad large intestine, guinea-pig caecum, and throughout the eel gut, but are generally sparse or absent from the musculature of the stomach and small intestine of the trout, toad, lizard and guinea-pig. The extent of adrenergic innervation of the muscle has been discussed in relation to the physiology of the different muscle coats and to the general structure of the enteric plexuses in the vertebrate gut.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Problems associated with the low intensity and fast fading of the formaldehydeinduced fluorescence of adrenergic nerves in young foetal human and rat gut have been overcome by loading the nerves with a primary catecholamine. This has been achieved by incubating the tissue, before freeze-drying, in Krebs solution containing added noradrenaline or α-methyl-noradrenaline. With this method fluorescent nerves have been revealed at a stage before any were demonstrable by normal procedures.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Acid phosphatase, non-specific esterase and β-glucuronidase have been localised in the midgut epithelium of three species of insect using naphthol esters as substrates and triphenyl-p-amino-phenethyl lead as coupling salt. In all three species acid phosphatase and β-glucuronidase appear to be confined to primary and secondary lysosomes. Non-specific esterase activity was demonstrated within membrane-enclosing bodies in all three species, associated with lipid droplets in T. molitor and C. morosus and with an unidentified intranuclear structure in C. morosus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Waardenburg syndrome (WS) type 1 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, pigmentary abnormalities of the eye, hair, and skin, and dystopia canthorum. The phenotype is variable and affected individuals may exhibit only one or a combination of several of the associated features. To assess the relationship between phenotype and gene defect, clinical and genotype data on 48 families (271 WS individuals) collected by members of the Waardenburg Consortium were pooled. Forty-two unique mutations in the PAX3 gene, previously identified in these families, were grouped in five mutation categories: amino acid (AA) substitution in the paired domain, AA substitution in the homeodomain, deletion of the Ser-Thr-Pro-rich region, deletion of the homeodomain and the Ser-Thr-Pro-rich region, and deletion of the entire gene. These mutation classes are based on the structure of the PAX3 gene and were chosen to group mutations predicted to have similar defects in the gene product. Association between mutation class and the presence of hearing loss, eye pigment abnormality, skin hypopigmentation, or white forelock was evaluated using generalized estimating equations, which allowed for incorporation of a correlation structure that accounts for potential similarity among members of the same family. Odds for the presence of eye pigment abnormality, white forelock, and skin hypopigmentation were 2, 8, and 5 times greater, respectively, for individuals with deletions of the homeodomain and the Pro-Ser-Thr-rich region compared to individuals with an AA substitution in the homeodomain. Odds ratios that differ significantly from 1.0 for these traits may indicate that the gene products resulting from different classes of mutations act differently in the expression of WS. Although a suggestive association was detected for hearing loss with an odds ratio of 2.6 for AA substitution in the paired domain compared with AA substitution in the homeodomain, this odds ratio did not differ significantly from 1.0.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...