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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Genetics ; insulin gene ; DQβ gene ; fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (previously known as tropical pancreatic diabetes) is a rare cause of diabetes confined to countries within the tropical belt. The aetiology of fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes is thought to be environmental although the agent(s) is unknown. We have investigated a possible genetic basis of this disease by looking for restriction fragment length polymorphisms of genes implicated in the aetiology of diabetes mellitus. Seventy-six Dravidian patients with fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes were studied, and the restriction fragment length polymorphisms obtained compared to racially matched control subjects (n=94), patients with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes (n=87) and Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes (n=58). No association of fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes was found with restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the insulin receptor gene. Although no association of fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes was found with polymorphism of the HLA DRα/DQα/DXα genes, an association was found with the Taq 1 restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the DQβ gene (DQβ T2/T6 present in 39% of patients with fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes compared to 19% in control subjects; p=0.01; corrected p value=0.04) which is similar to that found in Type 1 but not Type 2 diabetes. An association of fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes was also found with the hypervariable region in the 5-prime flanking region of the insulin gene; 40% of patients possessed the class 3 allele compared to 9.5% of control subjects p=0.0001; corrected p value=0.0008). In Type 2 diabetes, similar results were obtained with 33% subjects possessing the class 3 allele (p value compared to control subjects=0.0005; corrected p value=0.004). This study suggests that fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes has a genetic component in its aetiology. Furthermore, its origin might be related to an individual with part of the genetic predisposition to diabetes (Type 1 or Type 2) who additionally has evidence of chronic calcific pancreatitis.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The bacterium Pseudomonas phaseolicola was successfully transformed, for the first time, with R-factors RSF1010 and pBR322 DNA by a calciumshock and heat-pulse technique. Frequency of transformation for RSF1010 ranged from 0.8×10-7 to 3.1×10-6 and was ca. 0.4×10-8 for pBR322.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase catalyzes transfer of the γ-glutamyl moiety of glutathione to amino acids, dipeptides, and to glutathione itself; the enzyme also catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutathione to glutamate and cysteinyl-glycine. This review deals with the tissue distribution and localization of the enzyme in mammals, the catalytic properties of the enzyme (including its inhibition by reversible and irreversible inhibitors), structural studies on the enzyme, and new findings about its physiological function.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase catalyzes transfer of the γ-glutamyl moiety of glutathione to amino acids, dipeptides, and to glutathione itself; the enzyme also catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutathione to glutamate and cysteinyl-glycine. This review deals with the tissue distribution and localization of the enzyme in mammals, the catalytic properties of the enzyme (including its inhibition by reversible and irreversible inhibitors), structural studies on the enzyme, and new findings about its physiological function.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-879X
    Keywords: n-heptane aromatisation ; ZSM-5 ; non-templated
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract ZSM-5 was prepared without the aid of an organic template. Effect of synthesis parameters on its catalytic activity in aromatisation ofn-heptane are discussed. Addition of seed material increased the crystallinity of the ZSM-5 phase. The catalytic activity was comparable with a sample prepared using an organic template. Formation of higher amount of C9– aromatics was observed over the non-templated zeolite.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Amino acid receptors ; poly (A+)RNA ; translation and expression ; Xenopus ; taste ; transduction ; olfaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We demonstrate that poly (A+)RNA isolated from catfish barbels directs the expression of functional amino acid taste receptors in theXenopus oocyte. The activity of these receptors is monitored in ovo by the two electrode voltage clamp technique. Specific conductance changes recorded in response to amino acid stimulation are analogous to those recorded electrophysiologically from intact catfish barbels. These responses exhibit specificity, reproducibility, rapid onset and termination, and desensitization to repetitive stimulation. A functional assay system that encompasses the full complement of transduction events from the ligand-receptor interaction to subsequent conductance changes is necessary to identify molecular components responsible for these events. Our results demonstrate that theXenopus oocyte can be used to characterize and identify clones coding for amino acid taste receptors analogous to its use in studying receptor molecules for other neuroactive compounds.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Thiols ; Glutathione ; γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase ; Olfactory epithelium ; Respiratory epithelium ; Perireceptor events ; Rat (Sprague Dawley)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Components of the γ-glutamyl cycle, including thiols, glutathione (GSH) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT), were localized in the nasal mucosae of rats using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. In olfactory mucosa, thiols were widely distributed, with intense staining in the mucociliary complex (MC), basal cells, acinar cells of Bowman's glands (BG), and olfactory nerve bundles, and with moderate staining in olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). GSH was localized in MC, BG acinar cells, nerve bundles and, to a lesser extent, in ORNs. γ-GT immunoreactivity was restricted to the MC and to basolateral and apical membranes of BG acinar and duct cells. The basolateral membrane of BG acinar cells, located in close association with blood vessels and connective tissue, showed granule-like immunoreactivity. Inrespiratory mucosa, all three compounds were localized in the MC and acinar cells of respiratory glands (RG). In the MC, γ-GT immunoreactivity was associated primarily with brush borders of ciliated cells. Granular immunoreactivity was also apparent in the supranuclear region of RG acinar cells. These results demonstrate that components of the γ-glutamyl cycle are localized in olfactory and respiratory glands, and that they are secreted into the mucus, where they may mediate perireceptor events such as detoxification and/or solubilization of air-borne xenobiotics, toxicants and odorants.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Annals of operations research 9 (1987), S. 589-611 
    ISSN: 1572-9338
    Keywords: Reliability ; fault tolerance ; bounds on reliability ; bounds on mean time until failure ; avionics reliability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
    Notes: Abstract The U.S. Air Force is developing an Integrated Communications, Navigation, and Identification Avionics (aviation electronics) system with the acronym ICNIA for use in tactical aircraft. Designers of ICNIA as well as the Air Force need to be informed of the reliability of proposed designs. Hence, the Air Force contracted The Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC) to develop a model of the ICNIA system and to develop algorithms for determining various system performance measures such as the system reliability. TASC developed the ICNIA model and developed a software package called MIREM to analyze ICNIA systems. Unfortunately, due to the complexity of ICNIA, the developers of MIREM were forced to incorporate several approximations in MIREM. In the report by Foley [2], we showed that these approximations can perform poorly in some artificially constructed examples. Their accuracy on realistic examples is unknown. We have developed and implemented two algorithms for analyzing ICNIA. The algorithms do not use any approximations and are computationally feasible on realistic sized examples. It is recommended that MIREM be modified to use the algorithms described in this paper.
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