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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Key words Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome ; L-Tryptophan ; 3-(Phenylamino) alanine ; Rat ; 1 ; 1’-Ethylidenebis (L-tryptophan)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Consumption of certain product lots of L-tryptophan (LT) has been reported to be epidemiologically associated with an outbreak of eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS) in the United States. Since the production lots were found to contain 3-phenylamino alanine (PAA) as an impurity, its effects were studied by administering the substance orally by gavage to 5-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. Groups of animals were given PAA for 13 consecutive weeks at dose levels of 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg per day. The animals were killed at 4 or 8 weeks. Hematological and blood biochemical tests were performed and detailed histopathological observations were made. No significant abnormalities were observed in the test animals and in particular no EMS-like conditions. A brief summary of other animal studies using several species of rats and mice performed in our laboratory since 1989 on various LT related substances is also presented. No EMS-like effects were observed in these studies.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Electron microscopic cytochemical studies on the rat choroid plexus epithelium have revealed enzymatic sites for the activities of acid phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase and thiamine pyrophosphatase on different organelles. Only the activity of acid phosphatase has been previously described. Acid phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase and thiamine pyrophosphatase were respectively situated mainly in the lysosomes, in the endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope, and in the Golgi complex. These three enzymes can thus be considered as marker enzymes for their respective organelles in the choroid plexus epithelial cells as well as in other tissue cells. The possible function of these enzymes in the choroid plexus epithelial cells is also briefly discussed.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Localization of carbonic anhydrase activity was studied electron microscopically on cells of the rat choroid plexus epithelium. For the ultracytochemical detection of these activities, Yokota's technique (1969), which is the modification of Hansson's method (1967) was employed. Numerous electron dense reaction products were observed in the microvilli of the choroidal epithelial cell. The reaction deposits were also remarkably present in the infoldings of the basal plasmalemma but to a lesser extent than in the microvilli. The localization sites were mainly on the plasma membrane, but some reaction products were also observed in the cytoplasm near the plasma membrane. Hardly any reaction product was found in the intracellular organelles except for the mitochondria in which reaction products were occasionally observed on the cristae. These activities were completely inhibited by acetazolamide. As the carbonic anhydrase activity was histochemically seen in the microvilli and the basal infoldings, it is likely that carbonic anhydrase is related to an active transport process in the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid as is Na+, K+-ATPase (Masuzawa et al. 1980).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Primary rhabdomyosarcoma ; Brain tumor ; Ultrastructure ; Basal ganglia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Primary intracranial rhabdomyosarcoma is extremely rare. A case of primary rhabdomyosarcoma in the left basal ganglia is described in a 2-year-old boy. The investigations revealed no primary lesion elsewhere except in the brain. At the electron-microscopic level, the majority of the cells contained specific microfilamentous bundles, which were either distributed at random or organized in myofibrils identified by their cross striations with primitive Z band formation.
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  • 5
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    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 62 (1984), S. 225-229 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Dandy-Walker syndrome ; Dandy-Walker cyst ; Ependymal cell ; Ultrastructure ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructure of the wall of the Dandy-Walker cyst has been described rarely. A boy aged 2 years was confirmed clinically, neuroradiologically, and operatively as having a Dandy-Walker cyst in the posterior fossa. The cyst wall obtained during surgery consisted of an outer arachnoid cell layer, intermediate interwoven neuroglial strands, and an inner layer of cells which lacked the characteristic appearance of ependyma. An unusual finding was a small, buried island of ependymal cells in the intermediate layer of the neuroglial tissue. Ultrastructural study of the cyst wall provides a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the Dandy-Walker syndrome.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) ; Malignant DCPP ; Choroid plexus endothelium ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A disseminated choroid plexus papilloma (DCPP) with a malignant change in the cervico-spinal leptomeninges observed 4 years after the removal of choroid plexus papilloma (CPP), originating from the fourth ventricle, was studied under the electron microscope. Although the ultrastructure of intracranial CPP has been reported by several authors, there are just a few reports on DCPP. The present tumor was ultrastructurally very similar to normal choroid plexus, but the lack of the capillary fenestration and of invaginations of the epithelial basal plasmalemmas suggested that the epithelium was deprived of secretory function.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Chronic intracerebral and intracerebellar hematoma ; Fibrous capsule ; Small vascular malformation ; Encapsulated mass lesion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Two cases, one of a chronic encapsulated intracerebral hematoma occuring in a 43-year-old man and the other of an intracerebellar hematoma in an 8-year-old boy, are reported. In both cases CT scans revealed an encapsulated lesion containing the hematoma, but angiographic pictures were poor except for revealing a space-occupying lesion and a small vascular lesion. Both hematomas were successfully removed. Each case was associated with a thick, fibrous capsule that was found histologically to arise from an occult angiomatous malformation. The encapsulated hematomas partially included old thromboses, and both old and recent areas of hemorrhage. The latter were considered to be due to the rupture of vessels developed near the inner surface of the thickest part of the fibrous capsule. Although the condition is uncommon, chronic hematoma must be considered when encapsulated mass lesion is present in the brain.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Key words Vitamin D3 ; OCT ; Cytokines ; Nuclear factors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Topical vitamin D3 has relatively recently been introduced for the treatment of psoriasis. Synthetic vitamin D3 analogues with a high potential for inducing differentiation of cells, but with a low hypercalcemic effect have recently been developed. One such synthetic analogue of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), 22-oxacalcitriol (OCT), is a novel agent for the topical treatment of psoriasis. The activity of OCT in vitro was investigated and compared with that of a series of vitamin D3 analogues as to their ability to inhibit murine T lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by con-A, to suppress IL-6 and IL-8 production by keratinocytes stimulated with IL-1α and TNFα, and to inhibit AP-1- and NFκB-dependent reporter gene expression. OCT inhibited the proliferation of lymphocytes and suppressed IL-8 and IL-6 production by keratinocytes to the same extent as the other vitamin D3 analogues. It also inhibited AP-1- and NFκB-controlled luciferase activity to the same extent as the other vitamin D3 analogues, which demonstrates its mechanism of action in the suppression of inflammatory processes.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Motorische Neurone ; M. cricothyreoideus ; Nucleus ambiguus ; Retrograde Fluoreszenzmarkierung ; Hund ; Motor neurons ; Cricothyroid muscle ; Nucleus ambiguus ; Fluorescent retrograde labeling ; Dog
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Injection of 4′6-diamidino-2-phenylindol 2 HCl (DAPI) into the cricothyroid muscle of the adult dog resulted in blue fluorescence of cells found exclusively in the rostral part of the ipsilateral nucleus ambiguus. These labeled neurons on the average extended 1.8 mm from the level just caudal the facial nucleus to the caudal extension. In the rostral tip of the nucleus, labeled cells were located in a scattered ventral group of larger neurons of the nucleus.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Nach Injektion von 4′6-diamidino-2-phenylindol 2 HCl (DAPI) in den M. cricothyreoideus des erwachsenen Hundes zeigten die Zellen im rostralen Teil des ipsilateralen Nucleus ambiguus eine blaue Fluoreszenz. Die markierten Neuronen lagen kaudal vom Nucleus facialis. In der rostralen Spitze des Nucleus waren die Zellen in einer aufgelockerten ventralen Gruppe größerer Neurone lokalisiert.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Durch Epinephrine stimulierte menschliche Schweissdrüsen produzierten ein Sekret, welches 35–45 mÄq/l Natriumionen, 10–18 mÄq/l Kaliumionen und 15–19 mÄq/l Lactat enthielt. Adrenergisch stimulierter Schweiss hat demnach eine ähnliche Zusammensetzung wie cholinergisch stimulierter Schweiss. Mit dem Elektronenmikroskop liess sich nach der Stimulation durch Epinephrin eine deutliche Erweiterung der interzellulären Kanälchen zeigen. Diese und andere schon berichteten Beobachtungen sprechen dafür, dass Epinephrin die sezernierenden Zellen in einer ähnlichen Weise wie die cholinergischen Pharmaka direkt stimuliert.
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