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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: ouabain ; nitroglycerin ; cardiac glycosides ; impedance cardiography ; systolic time intervals ; echocardiography ; cardiac load changes ; pharmacodynamic effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In this intraindividual, placebo-controlled, double blind study the dynamic effects of single doses of ouabain 0.5 mg i.v. and 12 mg sublingual were compared with those of the vasodilator sublingual nitroglycerin 0.8 mg. In 12 (sublingual) and 6 (i.v.) healthy volunteers, respectively, cardiac performance was assessed for 60 min after administration, using systolic time intervals (QS2c, PEPc, PEP/LVET), electrical impedance cardiography ((dZ/dt)/RZ index) and echocardiography (EDD, ESD, FS). After i.v. ouabain the typical positive inotropic glycoside effects appeared (shortening of QS2c, PEPc, and PEP/LVET, increase of (dZ/dt)/RZ and FS, decrease of EDD and ESD). With nitroglycerin preload reduction diminished cardiac performance, as shown by a rise in PEPc and PEP/LVET and depression of (dZ/dt)/RZ. In addition, EDD (not significant) and ESD were somewhat reduced, FS was enhanced, and QS2c tended to shorten. Following sublingual ouabain, QS2c was unchanged, there was an increase in PEPc and PEP/LVET, a decrease in (dZ/dt)/RZ and FS, EDD was unchanged, and ESD rose. By this route the absolute magnitude of the effects was about 1/3 that of the i.v. drug action. The spectrum of effects of sublingual ouabain indicates a reduction in cardiac performance without any detectable inotropic action. The effects seem to be induced by load changes, with an indication of an increase in afterload although an additional preload reduction cannot be excluded. This dose of the drug given by the sublingual route appears, therefore, to alter cardiac function via an effect on the peripheral circulation, although the final mechanism has not yet been elucidated. It is not known whether these biological effects in healthy subjects may have any clinical significance in patients with cardiac disorders.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Molecular studies have shown microdeletions in region q11 of chromosome 22 in nearly all patients with DiGeorge, velocardiofacial and conotruncal anomaly face syndromes (DGS, VCFS and CTAFS, respectively) and in a high percentage of non-syndromic familial cases of conotruncal defects (CTD). CTD account for roughly a fourth to a third of all non-syndromic congenital heart defects (CHD), thus, 22q11 could harbor a major genetic factor of CHD. We searched for a 22q11 microdeletion in familial cases of non-syndromic CTD. Thirty-six cases of various isolated CTD, that is without history of hypocalcemia, immune deficiency, absent thymus, and dysmorphic appearance, were selected. With 48178, a cosmid probe localized in the smallest deleted region of the DiGeorge critical region (DGCR), we found no deletions by fluorescence in situ hybridization in these 36 affected individuals of 16 families with recurrent CTD. Moreover, D22S264, a microsatellilte localized at the distal part of the largest deleted region, was used to genotype the patients. Thirty-two patients out of 37 were heterozygous and hence not deleted at this locus, whereas 5 were uninformative. In conclusion, there are no large deletions in familial cases of various CTD, whether these defects are identical or not within a family. This result does not rule out other minor anomalies in this chromosomal region.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2277
    Keywords: Key words Liver graft quality ; Effluates ; Prediction of survival ; Glutathione S-transferase ; Glutamate dehydrogenase ; Leucocyte count
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Because transplantation success is influenced by the quality of the graft, the objective of this study was to find parameters to evaluate transplant livers in the recipient centre. In 64 liver grafts, the venous effluates of a portal back-table flush were investigated for various parameters. Amongst them, glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and the leucocyte count were found superior in predicting graft survival. Using the combination of these parameters, 100-day graft survival of between 95 % (all parameters positive) and 0 % (all parameters negative) was predicted. We concluded that good liver grafts are characterized by a low width of injury (cytosolic component: GST), a low depth of injury (mitochondrial component: GLDH), as well as by a potential to induce tolerance (passenger leucocytes). Perfusate analysis seems to be a valuable tool to recognize problematic grafts in advance and to quantify the “graft factor” in considerations concerning quality control.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Although acetate formation and tolerance are important criteria for various aspects of biotechnological process development, available studies on acetate tolerance in different species are disparate. We evaluate the response of eight bacterial strains, including two variants of Escherichia coli, two variants of Staphylococcus capitis, and one each of Acetobacter aceti, Gluconobacter suboxydans, Lactobacillus acetotolerans, and L. bulgaricus, to acetate challenges under identical conditions. Our findings were: (1) wild-type organisms of species that are considered tolerant of acetate perform only slightly better than E. coli in unadapted shaker cultures; (2) the ability to tolerate acetate is strongly dependent on the carbon source, and is, especially for E. coli, much greater on glycerol than on glucose; (3) respiration is not as important to acetate tolerance in E. coli and S. capitis as has been reported for the acetic acid bacteria; (4) S. capitis was the least affected by acetate under all conditions and grew at up to 44 g/l acetate without any preconditioning; and (5) qualitative high-throughput screening of growth characteristics can be achieved with relatively inexpensive multiwell plate readers.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Molecular studies have shown microdeletions in region q11 of chromosome 22 in nearly all patients with DiGeorge, velocardiofacial and conotruncal anomaly face syndromes (DGS, VCFS and CTAFS, respectively) and in a high percentage of non-syndromic familial cases of conotruncal defects (CTD). CTD account for roughly a fourth to a third of all non-syndromic congenital heart defects (CHD), thus, 22q11 could harbor a major genetic factor of CHD. We searched for a 22q11 microdeletion in familial cases of non-syndromic CTD. Thirty-six cases of various isolated CTD, that is without history of hypocalcemia, immune deficiency, absent thymus, and dysmorphic appearance, were selected. With 48F8, a cosmid probe localized in the smallest deleted region of the DiGeorge critical region (DGCR), we found no deletions by fluorescence in situ hybridization in these 36 affected individuals of 16 families with recurrent CTD. Moreover, D22S264, a microsatellilte localized at the distal part of the largest deleted region, was used to genotype the patients. Thirty-two patients out of 37 were heterozygous and hence not deleted at this locus, whereas 5 were uninformative. In conclusion, there are no large deletions in familial cases of various CTD, whether these defects are identical or not within a family. This result does not rule out other minor anomalies in this chromosomal region.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1971
    Keywords: Aortic valve stenosis ; Endocardial fibroelastosis ; Neonates ; Left ventricular dysfunction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary 30 patients with severe aortic valve stenosis presented in severe congestive heart failure within the first 2 months of life. In 25 of them, left ventricular volume and contractility were assessed; five of them had a left ventricle of normal size, in 11 left ventricular size was diminished, and in nine patients it was enlarged. Eleven of the infants had extensive endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) evidenced angiographically by myocardial sinusoids in ten of them and established at autopsy in six. The presence of EFE correlated with the size of the left ventricle; eight of 11 with a small left ventricle, two of five with a normal-sized left ventricle, and one of nine with an enlarged left ventricle displayed EFE. The severe depression of left ventricular function associated with EFE was documented by left ventricular volume determinations on exclusion of the myocardial sinusoids. Of 30 patients, 12 (including eight of 26 who underwent surgery) did not survive. Mortality, severity, and early onset of symptoms were associated mainly with small size of the left ventricle and with the severe left ventricular dysfunction associated with EFE.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1435-1285
    Keywords: Key words Cardiovascular malformations — birth prevalence — fatality rate — classification ; Schlüsselwörter Kardiovaskuläre Fehlbildungen — Geburtsprävalenz — Letalität — Klassifikation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The study presents data on cardiovascular malformations in Bavarian livebirths, born between 1984 and 1991. Cases have been ascertained retrospectively by reviewing hospital records of all children being referred to a children's hospital up to 2 years of age. The classification scheme was based on abnormalities in developmental mechanisms. Among 984,570 livebirths, 7020 cases with structural congenital heart disease were identified. The birth prevalence was 7.1 per 1000 livebirths. Between 1984 and 1991, total prevalence increased from 5.9/103 to 8.0/103. Prevalence in males was 7.3/103 and in females 6.9/103. 78.1% of all heart defects were isolated, the remaining 21.9% were associated either with chromosomal abnormalities (9.6%), non-chromosomal syndromes (1.0%), or noncardiac malformations of other organ systems (11.3%). Total fatality rate was 12.0%, with two thirds of deaths occurring within a month of birth or the following month of life. Data were compared with those of the Baltimore-Washington Infant Study. This study presents for the first time regional data on birth prevalences of congenital heart defects in Germany. The classification scheme reduces the wide spectrum of phenotype cardiovascular defects to several pathogenetic groups. The defects in each group may be related to similar causal factors.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung In einer retrospektiven Erhebung in den bayerischen und zwei grenznahen Kinderkliniken wurden die Lebendgeborenen der Geburtsjahrgänge 1984–1991 mit Wohnsitz in Bayern erfaßt, die während ihrer ersten beiden Lebensjahre wegen einer kardiovaskulären Fehlbildung behandelt wurden. Die Klassifikation der Herz- und Gefäßanomalien erfolgte nach einem an der Störung embryonaler Entwicklungmechanismen orientierten Schema. Unter den 984 570 Lebendgeborenen in Bayern wurden während des achtjährigen Beobachtungszeitraumes 7020 Kinder mit einem Herzfehler diagnostiziert. Das entspricht einer Geburtsprävalenz von 7,1 pro 1000 Lebendgeborene. Zwischen 1984 und 1991 stieg die Gesamtprävalenz von 5,9/103 auf 8,0/103 an. Knaben waren mit 7,3/103 häufiger betroffen als Mädchen mit 6,9/103 Lebendgeborene des jeweiligen Geschlechts. 78,1% der Defekte traten isoliert auf, die restlichen 21,9% in Kombination mit chromosomalen Störungen (9,6%), nichtchromosomalen Syndromen (1,0%) und nichtsyndromalen Fehlbildungen anderer Organe (11,3%). Die Letalität der Gesamtgruppe bis zum Ende des zweiten Lebensjahres betrug 12,5%, wobei etwa zwei Drittel der Todesfälle in den Geburts- und Folgemonat fielen. Die Daten werden mit denen der Baltimore-Washington Infant Study verglichen. Die Studie präsentiert erstmals flächendeckende Daten zu angeborenen Herzfehlern in Deutschland. Das angewandte Klassifikationsschema faßt die große Zahl anatomischer Defekte des Herz-Gefäß-Systems zu denkbaren pathogenetischen Gruppen zusammen, die möglicherweise durch ähnliche Kausalfaktoren bedingt sind.
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