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  • 1
  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Fractions of homologous liver cells (nuclear, cytoplasmic, and mitochondrialmicrosomal fraction), and for comparison, a whole liver extract, were used with Freund's adjuvant to sensitize rabbits over 16 weeks. By means of periodic serological testing with the passive hemagglutination ofBoyden the development of specific antibodies against the different liver cell fractions could be followed. Specific anticytoplasmic and antinuclear antibodies could be demonstrated by immune fluorescent technics. From the results of our studies it seems improbable that these antibodies act pathogenically after passive immunization.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Kaninchen wurden mit homologen Leberzellfraktionen (Kern-, Cytoplasma- und Mitochondrien-Mikrosomenfraktion) sowie zum Vergleich mit einem homologen Lebergesamtextrakt zusammen mit Freundschem Adjuvans über 16 Wochen sensibilisiert. Durch serologische Verlaufskontrollen mit der passiven Hämagglutination nachBoyden konnten spezifische Antikörper gegen die einzelnen Leberzellfraktionen erfaßt werden. Fluorescenzserologisch ließen sich spezifische anticytoplasmatische und antinucleäre Antikörper nachweisen. Bine pathogene Wirksamkeit dieser Antikörper ist auf Grund unserer Untersuchungsergebnisse bei passiver Übertragung der Antiseren unwahrscheinlich.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) infected chick embryo cells (CEC) incubated in the presence of Tunicamycin, a drug which specifically inhibits glycosylation, were studied under the electron microscope. No extracellular virions were produced although intracellular viral nucleocapsids in paracrystalline form were detected. Under these conditions the structures, referred to as type 1 and 2 cytopathic vacuoles (cpv-1 and cpv-2, respectively) as well as membraneous spherules at the plasma membrane could still be observed. CEC productively infected and transformed by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) incubated for 24 hours in the presence of Tunicamycin (1 µg/ml) still showed budding and extracellular particles. Intracellular nucleocapsid structures could not be detected.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-0385
    Keywords: Keywords: Clinical liver transplantation ; Clinical studies ; Immunosuppressants ; Surgical techniques. ; Schlüsselwörter: Klinische Lebertransplantation ; klinische Studien ; Immunosuppression ; chirurgisch-technische Innovation.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung. Die klinische Lebertransplantation hat sich seit der ersten mindestens mittelfristig erfolgreichen Lebertransplantation 1967 zu einem etablierten Therapieverfahren bei terminalen Lebererkrankungen entwickelt. Ganz maßgeblichen Anteil an der Verbesserung der peri- und postoperativen Therapie lebertransplantierter Patienten hatten klinische Studien. Dieser Artikel soll in einem Überblick über wichtige klinische Studien informieren. Als Schwerpunkte wurden Studien zu Immunsuppressiva, chirurgisch-technischen Innovationen, viralen Infektionen und Tumorerkrankungen ausgewählt. Insgesamt sind prospektiv randomisierte multizentrische Studien auf diesem Gebiet noch die Ausnahme, die meisten Studien sind unizentrisch. In der Zukunft sind besonders weitere Studien zur Reduktion der immunsuppressionsbedingten Nebenwirkungen, der Einführung neuer monoklonaler Antikörper und zur besseren Therapie rezidivierender viraler Hepatitiden wünschenswert, diese Studien sollten möglichst randomisiert, prospektiv und multizentrisch sein.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Onkologe 2 (1996), S. 582-592 
    ISSN: 1433-0415
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Gynäkologe 33 (2000), S. 711-717 
    ISSN: 1433-0393
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Lebensqualität ; Integrative Medizin ; Psychosoziale Komorbidität ; Psychoonkologie ; Keywords Quality of life ; integrative medicine ; psychosocial comorbidity ; psycho-oncology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Patients with progressive cancer and their families face a series of existential crises with each stage of disease up to terminal stages in which palliative treatment is begun, and patients come to accept the inevitability of death. This can lead to a unique, highly emotional situation with direct or indirect, open or hidden, varied and very personal manifestations. In these situations, physicians and other health professionals must not let themselves be paralyzed by the nearness of death or be seduced into overactivity, but rather must be competent and honest partners for the affected patients. The necessity of maintaining a high medical and oncological standard on the one hand, and of fulfilling complex psychosocial requirements on the other, makes working in palliative medicine a personal challenge that well deserves the name of “holistic medicine.”
    Notes: Zum Thema Im Falle einer fortschreitenden Krebserkrankung haben Patienten und deren Angehörige eine Reihe von Krisen zu bestehen, die sich über die verschiedenen Krankheitsetappen bis zur palliativen Behandlungssituation in ihrer existentiellen Bedrohlichkeit steigern, bis die Auseinandersetzung mit dem Lebensende schließlich real und unabweisbar wird. Dadurch kommt es zu einer Ausnahmesituation von hoher emotionaler Intensität, die sich in vielfältiger und sehr individueller Weise, offen oder verborgen, direkt oder indirekt ausdrückt. In dieser Lage stehen die behandelnden Ärzte und die Pflegenden vor dem Problem, sich nicht von der Todesnähe lähmen, aber auch nicht zu Überaktivität verleiten zu lassen und den Patienten als kompetente und wahrhaftige Gesprächspartner zur Verfügung zu stehen. Die Notwendigkeit zugleich einen hohen onkologisch-medizinischen Standard aufrecht zu erhalten und den komplexen psychosozialen Erfordernissen gerecht zu werden, macht die Arbeit im palliativen Bereich zu einer persönlichen Herausforderung, die es zurecht verdient, “Ganzheitsmedizin” [34] genannt zu werden.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Two carbohydrate fractions can be obtained from egg-grown influenza virus after Pronase digestion followed by gel chromatography. One fraction contains glycopeptides (MW ca. 2000–2600) which represent the carbohydrate side chains of the viral glycoproteins. The constituent sugars of this material are fucose, galactose, glucosamine, and mannose, and their position within the side chain has been partially elucidated by methylation studies. The other fraction (MW〉6000) appears to be mucopolysaccharide and is composed of fucose, galactose, glucose, galactosamine, and glucosamine.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The α-glucosidase inhibitor bromoconduritol inhibits the formation of the N-linked, complex-type oligosaccharides of the glycoproteins from influenza viruses (fowl plague virus, influenza virus PR-8) and from sindbis virus. Viral glycoproteins produced in bromoconduritol-treated chickenembryo and baby-hamster kidney cells are fully glycosylated, but accumulate N-linked, high-mannose oligosaccharides of the composition Glc1Manx (GlcNAc)2 (x=7, 8, and 9). Other α-glucosidase inhibitors (nojirimycin, deoxynojirimycin, acarbose) were not specific inhibitors of oligosaccharide processing under the conditions used in the present investigation. In bromoconduritol-treated, sindbis virus-infected chicken-embryo and baby-hamster kidney cells, the sindbis glycoproteins are metabolically stable. Specific proteolytic cleavage of the polyprotein precursors to form E2 and E1 occurs in bromoconduritol-treated chicken-embryo cells, but cleavage of PE2 to E2 is prevented in the infected baby-hamster kidney cells. Yet, release of infectious sindbis virus particles is inhibited in both cell types indicating that the formation of complex oligosaccharides is required for a late step in virus formation. The release of virus particles from influenza virus PR-8-infected bromoconduritol-treated chicken-embryo cells is not inhibited, and virus with only high-mannose oligosaccharides is formed. In contrast, when chickenembryo cells were infected with the influenza virus fowl plague virus, release of infectious particles was inhibited. The fowl plague virus hemagglutinin is cleaved in chicken-embryo cells, in contrast to the hemagglutinin of the PR-8 virus. However, the cleavage products HA1 and HA2 do not reach the cell surface. In addition, or as a consequence, HA1 and HA2 are proteolytically broken down, whereas uncleaved hemagglutinin of PR-8 appeared metabolically stable. These results may explain the decrease in formation of fowl plague virus particles and the lack of effect on PR-8 virus in bromoconduritol-treated cells. This work thus shows different biological roles for oligosaccharide processing.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The numbers of the carbohydrate side chains have been analyzed on a series of subtype 7 hemagglutinins of influenza A virus. The procedure employed involves growth of the virus in the presence of the trimming inhibitor N-methyl-1-desoxynojirimycin followed by controlled removal of the resulting mannose-rich oligosaccharides with endo-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. By comparative analysis with virus grown in the absence of the inhibitor oligomannosidic side chains can be discriminated from complex ones. The results show that all H7 hemagglutinins have a complex and an oligomannosidic side chain on HA2, whereas the oligosaccharides of HA1 vary in number.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Key words: Thoracoscopy — Pulmonary metastases — Metastasectomy — Intrathoracic cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: The authors reviewed a series of 74 patients with cancer metastatic to the chest cavity undergoing thoracoscopic procedures. Indications, feasibility, and outcome of thoracoscopy were analyzed. Methods: Perioperative and survival data on patients undergoing 89 operative thoracoscopic procedures between January 1991 and August 1993 were retrieved from a prospective database. These procedures included pulmonary wedge resection (n= 61), lobectomy (n= 2), pleurodesis (n= 11), pleural biopsy (n= 7), decortication (n= 1), and mediastinal mass resection (n= 2). In 13 cases, combined procedures were performed. Five thoracoscopies were converted to open thoracotomies to facilitate resection. Results: Thoracoscopic pulmonary resections were performed for either diagnostic (n= 45) or curative (n= 18) intent. Diagnostic thoracoscopies were done for lesions in which less invasive biopsy attempts had failed to provide tissue, or that were considered too small for successful percutaneous biopsy. Thoracoscopic diagnostic accuracy was 100%. For the 18 patients undergoing potentially curative resection, mean follow-up is 15.4 months. Sixteen of these patients are currently alive, and eight are free of disease. Five complications related to the procedure included persistent air leak (n= 2), atrial fibrillation (n= 2), and urinary retention (n= 1). Overall hospital stay for thoracoscopic lung resection was 4.6 ± 2.2 days, for converted open thoracotomy 6.8 ± 1.9 days, and for patients undergoing pleurodesis 8.9 ± 5.3 days. Mean chest tube duration after thoracoscopic resection was 2.6 ± 1.6 days. Conclusions: Thoracoscopic procedures are safe, well tolerated, and useful for diagnosis and treatment of selected patients with suitable intrathoracic metastatic disease.
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