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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The effect of applying ultrasound in anodic stripping voltammetry analysis of Cd2+ in pH 4.6 buffer containing the surfactant Triton X-100 has been investigated. Manipulation of the horn intensity and the horn/electrode distance was found to reduce the deleterious influence of the surfactant on the height of the cadmium peak. The system has been optimised to take advantage of the in situ cleaning action offered by ultrasound. As a result facile detection of Cd2+ (0.05–4 μM) in solutions containing 10 μg/mL Triton X-100 can be achieved without recourse to sample pretreatments or electrode modifications.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Keywords: Key words: Interleukin 13 — Polymorphonuclear neutrophil — Prostaglandin E2— Cyclooxygenase 2 — Neutral esterase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Objective: To investigate whether interleukin-13 (IL-13) can affect arachidonic acid metabolism and phagocytic activity of normal human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN).¶Methods: Normal human PMN (1 × 106 cells/ml) were incubated with different concentrations of IL-13 (0.1–10 ng/ml) for a variety of times (30–120 min). Phagocytosis and intracellular cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. The concentration of PGE2 in the PMN cultured supernatants was determined by EIA.¶Results: We found that IL-13 at an optimal concentration of 1 ng/ml significantly enhanced COX-2 gene expression and PGE2 production (121.57 ± 22.17 pg/ml in IL-13 stimulation vs. 73.16 ± 11.72 pg/ml in controls) by PMN. In addition, IL-13 stimulated PMN phagocytosis via increased complement receptor type 1 (CR1) and type 3 (CR3), but not IgG Fcγ receptor type 3 (FcγRIII). The cytoplasmic neutral esterase activity of PMN was also enhanced by IL-13 stimulation for 24 h.¶Conclusions: These results suggest that IL-13 can stimulate PMN and modulates the inflammatory reactions via the cyclooxygenase pathway.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    World journal of urology 9 (1991), S. 69-74 
    ISSN: 1433-8726
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Neoplasia is the result of cumulative genetic damage. Cytogenetic analysis identifies abnormalities of chromosome number and structure. Abnormal mode, wide variation in chromosome number, and aneuploidy are associated with loss of differentiation and advanced stage in bladder cancer. Marker chromosomes have been associated with increased risk of recurrence and progression of superficial, low-grade tumors. With the use of banding techniques, aberrations can be assigned to specific chromosomes and significant nonrandom abnormalities have been identified on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 17. With the use of molecular biology techniques, allelic deletions, proto-oncogene activation, and mutations can be detected and correlated to the pathophysiologic events that determine the biologic behavior of a particular tumor. Allelic deletions of chromosome 9q are independent of stage and grade and suggest that loss of a tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 9q may be an important primary event in the genesis of bladder cancer. Deletions of chromosomes 11p and 17p, evident only in high-grade tumors, may be important in bladder cancer progression.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The structure 3-butyl-5-propylindolizidine (2), tentatively assigned to a minor alkaloid in skin extracts from a number of poison frogs of the Neotropical genusDendrobates, has been confirmed and its stereochemistry determined as 5E, 9E (2d) by comparison on GC and GC-MS with the four synthetic diastereomers2a-2d.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Radon ; Groundwater ; Earthquakes ; Taiwan
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Radon (222Rn) concentration in geothermal waters and CO2-rich cold springwaters collected weekly in duplicate samples from four stations in northern Taiwan were measured from July 1980 to December 1983. Seven spike-like radon anomalies (increases of 2 to 3 times the standard deviation above the mean) were observed at three stations. Following every anomaly except one, an earthquake ofM L above 4.6 occurred within 4 to 51 days, at an epicentral distance 14 to 45 km, and at a focal depth of less than 10 km. The distribution of the earthquakes preceded by radon anomalies is skewed in certain directions from the radon stations; the radon stations seem to be insensitive to earthquakes occurring in the other directions. At the fourth station, near a volcanic area, much gas (mainly CO2) is discharged from the well, together with hot water. A very high concentration of radon was detected in the discharged gas; therefore trapping of gas in the water can result in anomalously high radon contents. According to limited measurements, the radon concentration in water appears to be undersaturated with respect to that in gas. This suggests that hot water is very susceptible to radon loss, and monitoring of radon in gas is more desirable.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9039
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Das elastodynamische Spannungsgebiet um einen pfennigförmigen Bruchriss, der mit konstanter Geschwindigkeit in einem unendlichen Körper läuft, wird als Summe der verbundenen statischen Lösung und der Wellenwirkungsterme aufgefasst. Die Ergebnisse schliessen das Spannungsgebiet im Bereich des laufenden Bruchrisses und die zugehörigen statischen Lösungen als Sonderlösungen ein. Die Ringspannung der Risspitze, πθθ wird als Funktion der RissgeschwindigkietV, der Geschwindigkeit der Scherungswellec 2, der Poissonzahl ν und des Winkels θ zwischen der Bruchebene und einer Radiallinie von der Risspitze aus ausführlich studiert. Die Theorie sagt aus, dass der laufende Riss bei der kritischen Geschwindigkeit von 0.665c 2 in der Richtung θ=41° für ν=0.25 zu gabeln anfangen kann. Der vorausgesagte Gabelungswinkel wird mit Versuchserfahrungen verglichen.
    Notes: Abstract The elastodynamic stress field around a penny-shaped crack running at a constant speed in an infinite solid is obtained as the sum of the associated static solutions and the wave-effect terms. The results include the stress field in the plane of the running crack and the associated static solutions as special solutions. The crack-tip circumferential stress, πθθ, is studied in detail as a function of the crack speed,V, the shear wave speed,c 2, Poisson's ratio, ν, and the angle, θ, between the crack plane and a crack-tip radial line. The theory predicts that the running crack may start to bifurcate at the critical speed of 0.665c 2 in the direction θ=41° for ν=0.25. The bifurcation angle predicted is compared to an experimental observation.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1619-6937
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary Fracture of a hybrid laminate containing a pair of collinear cracks in the central layer is studied. The surfaces of the cracks are opened by an arbitrary opening pressure. The problem is reduced to the solution of the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind by using the techniques of the Fourier transforms and the finite Hilbert transform. In the case of an uniform opening pressure, the exact expressions for the stress intensity factors in the inner tip and the outer tip of the cracks and the shape of the deformed crack are obtained. Numerical calculations are carried out to study the interaction between the cracks and the effects of the hybrid lamination on the fracture of the hybrid laminate.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta mechanica 13 (1972), S. 117-132 
    ISSN: 1619-6937
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Eine Störungsrechnung zur Beschreibung der Form des Fernfeldes von Torsionswellen in einem linear-elastischen Stab von elliptischem Querschnitt, mit den Halbachsena undb, wird entwickelt. Die Näherung niedrigster Ordnung, die sich mit bekannten Resultaten vergleichen läßt, führt zu einer in Achsrichtung mit der Geschwindigkeitc = [2ab/(a 2+b 2)](μ/ϱ)1/2 fortlaufenden Welle. Eine Näherung höherer Ordnung, die für große Zeiten gültig ist, wird erhalten; eine Darstellung ihrer Lösung durch ein Airy-Integral zeigt den Dispersionscharakter der Welle.
    Notes: Summary A perturbation method is developed to describe the far-field structure of torsional waves in a linearly elastic rod of elliptical cross section with semi-axes of lengthsa andb. The highest order problem, comparable to what is known, leads to a wave propagating along the axis with a speedc = [2ab/(a 2+b 2)](μ/ϱ)1/2. A higher order approximation is obtained, uniformly valid for large time; a representation of its solution in terms of Airy integral brings out the dispersive nature of the wave.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Key words Spontaneous variability ; Mechanical ventilation ; Arterial oxygenation ; Positive end-expiratory pressure ; Inverse ratio ventilation ; Venous admixture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: To assess the magnitude of spontaneous variability of arterial oxygenation and oxygen tension-based indices over time in medical intensive care unit (ICU) patients and to study whether high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or inverse inspiratory-to-expiratory (I:E) ratio ventilation (IRV) results in a greater variability than low PEEP with conventiona l I:E ratio ventilation. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Medical ICU in a tertiary medical center. Participants: 23 patients requiring a pulmonary artery floating catheter for hemodynamic monitoring. Intervention: After being completely sedated, patients were randomized to receive pressure-control ventilation at setting A: high PEEP (15 cmH2O) with conventional I:E ratio (1:2) and setting B: inverse I:E ratio (2:1) with low PEEP (5 cmH2O) alternately, and then at setting C: low PEEP (5 cmH2O) with conventional I:E ratio (1:2). Each ventilation setting lasted 1 h. Measurements and results: The arterial and mixed venous blood samples were measured simultaneously at baseline (time 0), and at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter. The coefficient of variation (CV) of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) over time was 5.9 % for setting A, 7.2 % for setting B, and 6.9 % for setting C. ANOVA showed no significant differences in CVs of PaO2 between the three settings. Oxygen tension-based indices, alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (A-aDO2) and PaO2/PAO2 (alveolar oxygen tension), displayed CV s equal to that of PaO2; the CV of A-aDO2/PaO2 was significantly greater than that of PaO2. Conclusions: In critically ill medical ICU patients, despite sedation, the spontaneous variability in PaO2 over time is substantial. A high PEEP or IRV does not contribute to the increased variation in PaO2.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0743
    Keywords: asplenia syndrome ; computed tomography ; congenital heart disease ; esophageal varices ; total anomalous pulmonary venous connection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) is an uncommon congenital anomaly in which the anatomical presentations vary widely among patients. We hereby present two newborns with TAPVC associated with asplenia syndrome; both had severe esophageal varices due to infradiaphragmatic pulmonary venous drainage. Ultrafast computed tomography (CT) scanning was superior to color Doppler echocardiography and cardiac catheterization as it provided a detailed portrait of the pulmonary drainage. The remarkable radiographic manifestations are presented.
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