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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We describe a simple method for characterizing a frequent polymorphism (that subsitutes an arginine for a proline) in the coding sequence of the Tp53 gene in patients with colonic cancer and in a control population. We could find no evidence that this polymorphism is associated with a marked predisposition to colorectal cancer.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The EF5.44 locus is in close proximity to the chromosome 5 region to which the genetic defect responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis has been mapped. We have devised two oligonucleotides that promote the specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplificiation of a 365-bp sequence in this region. Analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the resulting fragment has unravelled individual differences that could be identified as a single base pair change in aMnlI restriction site. This PCR assayable polymorphism increases the informativeness at this locus, and should be useful in the presymptomatic diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Key words Medulloblastoma ; Primitive neuroectodermal tumour ; Germ cell tumour ; High-grade glioma ; Ependymoma ; Stem cell transplantation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  New therapeutic strategies are required to improve the prognosis of malignant brain tumours in children, in terms of survival and quality of life. During the last 10 years, high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous haematopoietic stem cell rescue has been studied in different types of paediatric brain tumours. The most frequently used combined regimens were busulfan-thiotepa and etoposide-thiotepa along with carboplatin or BCNU. High response rates have been reported in medulloblastoma and germ cell tumours, and HDCT has been further developed as salvage therapy or for consolidation in these diseases. Interesting objective tumour responses have been obtained in supratentorial high-grade glioma, but HDCT has not so far been effective either in ependymoma or in diffuse pontine brain stem tumours. This article reviews the rationale for HDCT in brain tumours and the current clinical results obtained in each tumour type. The place of HDCT in the therapeutic strategy for paediatric brain tumours, especially in young children, is discussed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract In the framework of the French participation in the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY), ten magnetotelluric stations were installed between November 1992 and November 1994 along a 1200-km-long meridian profile, between Lamto (latitude 6.2°N, CôCte d’Ivoire) to the south and Tombouctou (latitude 16.7°N, Mali) to the north. These stations measured digitally the three components of the magnetic field and the two components of the telluric electric field, and operated over a period of 20 months. The magnetic data is used to study the features of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in West African longitude. The measurement of the telluric electric field variations will be presented elsewhere. Hourly mean values are used to study the morphological structure of the regular diurnal variation SR of the three components (H, D, and Z) of the earth magnetic field and to characterize the EEJ during magnetically quiet days. The occurrences of the counter-electrojet (CEJ) are set forth, emphasizing its seasonal variability. Assumed to be a current ribbon, the EEJ main parameters (the position of its center, its width, and the amplitude of its current density at the center) are determined. A preliminary analysis of the time variations of these parameters is presented over period of 20 months (from January 1993 to August 1994). Results are compared with those obtained during previous experiments of the same kind.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Electromagnetic (Transient and time domain) Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (geomagnetic induction) Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract In the framework of the French-Ivorian participation to the IEEY, a network of 10 electromagnetic stations were installed at African longitudes. The aim of this experiment was twofold: firstly, to study the magnetic signature of the equatorial electrojet on the one hand, and secondly, to characterize the induced electric field variations on the other hand. The first results of the magnetic field investigations were presented by Doumouya and coworkers. Those of the electric field experiment will be discussed in this study. The electromagnetic experiment will be described. The analysis of the electromagnetic transient variations was conducted in accordance with the classical distinction between quiet and disturbed magnetic situations. A morphological analysis of the recordings is given, taking into consideration successively quiet and disturbed magnetic situations, with the results interpreted in terms of the characterization of external and internal sources. Particular attention was paid to the effects of the source characteristics on the induced field of internal origin, and to the bias they may consequently cause to the results of electromagnetic probing of the Earth; the source effect in electromagnetic induction studies. During quiet magnetic situations, our results demonstrated the existence of two different sources. One of these, the SRE source, was responsible for most of the magnetic diurnal variation and corresponded to the well-known magnetic signature of the equatorial electrojet. The other source (the SR*E source) was responsible for most of the electric diurnal variation, and was also likely to be an ionospheric source. Electric and magnetic diurnal variations are therefore related to different ionospheric sources, and interpreting the electric diurnal variation as induced by the magnetic field diurnal variation is not relevant. Furthermore, the magnetotelluric probing of the upper mantle at dip equator latitudes with the electromagnetic diurnal variation is consequently impossible to perform. In the case of irregular variations, the source effect related to the equatorial electrojet is also discussed. A Gaussian model of equatorial electrojet was considered, and apparent resistivities were computed for two models of stratified Earth corresponding to the average resistive structure of the two tectonic provinces crossed by the profile: a sedimentary basin and a cratonic shield. The apparent resistivity curves were found to depend significantly on both the model used and the distance to the center of the electrojet. These numerical results confirm the existence of a daytime source effect related to the equatorial electrojet. Furthermore, we show that the results account for the observed differences between daytime and night-time apparent resistivity curves. In particular, it was shown that electromagnetic probing of the Earth using the classical Cagniard-Tikhonov magnetotelluric method is impossible with daytime recordings made at dip latitude stations.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Equatorial electrojet ; Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions ; Electric fields and currents ; Auroral ionosphere ; Ionospheric disturbances
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Geomagnetic storm-time variations often occur coherently at high latitude and the day-side dip equator where they affect the normal eastward Sq field. This paper presents an analysis of ground magnetic field and ionospheric electrodynamic data related to the geomagnetic storm which occured on 27 May 1993 during the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY) experiment. This storm-signature analysis on the auroral, mid-latitude and equatorial ground field and ionospheric electrodynamic data leads to the identification of a sensitive response of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) to large-scale auroral return current: this response consists in a change of the eastward electric field during the pre-sunrise hours (0400–0600 UT) coherently to the high-, mid-, and equatorial-latitude H decrease and the disappearance of the EEJ irregularities between the time-interval 0800–0950 UT. Subsequent to the change in h’F during pre-sunrise hours, the observed foF2 increase revealed an enhancement of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) caused by the high-latitude penetrating electric field. The strengthening of these irregularities attested by the Doppler frequency increase tracks the H component at the equator which undergoes a rapid increase around 0800 UT. The ΔH variations observed at the equator are the sum of the following components: SR, DP, DR, DCF and DT.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fifteen patients received irradiation after combined chemotherapy with high-dose busulfan followed by autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Of nine patients irradiated between day 30 and day 70 after their engraftment, seven developed an increased radiation response in the skin: four showed enhanced reactions during irradiation, and three had a total or severe definitive alopecia more than 16 months after CNS irradiation. Six patients were irradiated after day 70; they had either normal reactions or none at all within the cutaneous radiation portals. The possibility that busulfan might be a radiosensitizer is raised.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Keywords: Key words Mitoxantrone ; Intratumoral injections ; Experimental liver tumors ; Pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The intratumoral (i.t.) delivery of anticancer drugs aims at controlling tumor growth and thereby provides palliative treatment for liver neoplasms. Mitoxantrone is a good candidate for local or regional administration because (1) its metabolism is mainly hepatic, (2) it has a steep dose-response curve for multiple solid tumors, and (3) its fixation in tissues is sustained without vesicant effects after extravasation. We compared the tolerance, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor effects of mitoxantrone on hepatic VX2 tumors in rabbits treated with i.t. intraarterial hepatic (i.a.h.) or i.v. mitoxantrone, i.t. ethanol; or i.t. 0.9% NaCl and in control animals. Tumor growth rates (TGRs) were evaluated at 9 days after treatment. Myelosuppression was the limiting toxicity of i.v. mitoxantrone at 1.5 mg/kg (maximal tolerated dose, MTD), but neither i.t. nor i.a.h. administration led to hematologic toxicity at the same dose. The mitoxantrone retained in tumors after i.t. administration was seen as blue-stained areas of complete necrosis according to histologic analysis. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed a significantly decreased systemic exposure to the drug after both regional treatments, although the i.a.h. route appeared to have an edge over the i.t. route. TGRs were significantly reduced after i.t. mitoxantrone (81±62%), i.a.h. mitoxantrone (337±110%), and i.t. ethanol treatments (287±117%) as compared with control values (886±223%; p〈0.01). Treatment with i.v. mitoxantrone (816±132%) had no antitumor effect, nor did NaCl injections (868±116%). Mitoxantrone given i.t. induced the highest antitumor effects, resulting in a 3.5-fold reduction in TGRs as compared with i.a.h. mitoxantrone and i.t. ethanol treatments (p〈0.02). Treatment with i.t. mitoxantrone provided efficient antitumor therapy without producing major side effects. This method should be considered as palliative treatment for nonresectable liver tumors and other localized malignancies.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We treated 101 patients with advanced (stage III and IV) lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma at first presentation of the disease or in relapse according to a protocol combining initial chemotherapy, complementary radiotherapy on icebergs, supplementary chemotherapy, and, finally, active immunotherapy. The overall complete remission rate was about 79% for lymphosarcoma and 73% for reticulosarcoma. About 50% of the patients were still in remission in each of the two diseases at 2 years; 60% of lymphosarcoma and 44% of reticulosarcoma patients achieved 2-year survival. This study shows the prognostic value of the WHO classification for lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma: the prognosis of prolymphocytic (centrofollicular) lymphosarcoma is far better than that of the lymphoblastic type, which is in turn better than that of the very poor prognosis of the immunoblastic type. The prognosis of reticulosarcoma is intermediate between that of the best-prognosis and that of the poorest-prognosis type of lymphosarcoma.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Vindesine (VDS) has been submitted to a phase-II trial, the results of which were assessed in terms of regression induction. VDS was given weekly IV in doses of 2 mg/m2 on two consecutive days to 59 patients, 55 of whom were evaluable. A high proportion of complete (36%) and over 50% partial regressions were obtained in acute lymphoid leukemias (ALL) (overall response 63%) whatever the perceptible phase, in blastic crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia (55%), and some responses were recorded in lymphosarcoma (40%). No effect has so far been seen in acute myeloid leukemia or in Hodgkin's disease. Malignant neoplasms of the immunoblastic type seem to be particularly sensitive to VDS. Continuous 48 h IV infusion can induce a remission where an IV push administration of the same dose has failed. One remarkable characteristic of VDS is the apparent absence of cross-resistance with VCR: in acute leukemic forms, 55% of patients who failed to obtain remission induction after three weekly injections of VCR (used in combination chemotherapy) achieved a complete or partial remission with VDS. The toxicity was mainly neurologic (paralytic ileus, constipation, paresthesias, loss of reflexes) and hematologic (leukopenia and thrombopenia), and was not more significant than with the other agents: four patients died of infection or hemorrhage.
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