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  • Springer  (418)
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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biochemistry ; Computer Simulation ; Bioinformatics ; Biology / Data processing ; Biomedicine ; Biomedicine general ; Computational Biology/Bioinformatics ; Computer Appl. in Life Sciences ; Bioinformatics ; Simulation and Modeling ; Medicinal Chemistry ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital.
    ISBN: 9789400745964
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  • 2
    Keywords: Medicine ; Gene Expression ; Biotechnology ; Genetic Engineering ; Bioinformatics ; Biological models ; Microbial genetics ; Biomedicine ; Gene Expression ; Systems Biology ; Biotechnology ; Microbial Genetics and Genomics ; Genetic Engineering ; Computational Biology/Bioinformatics ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital.
    ISBN: 9789400745346
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary In contrast to chemically induced mutants of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in which we have found replacement of one or at most of two amino acids per coat protein chain, the protein chains of naturally occurring TMV strains differ from each other in numerous positions. The complete amino acid sequence of the naturally occurring TMV straindahlemense isolated byMelchers (1940) has been determined. It differs in 30 of the 158 amino acid positions from the TMV wild strainvulgare (Fig. 1). This is the first case in which complete amino acid sequences of the coat proteins of two virus strains can be compared. Such a comparison permits conclusions about the structure of the protein subunits and about certain aspects of the genetic code to be drawn. The electrophoretic mobility curves for the virus rods and the A proteins ofvulgare anddahlemense (Fig. 4) can be explained on the basis of the amino acid sequences of the two strains. Spatial distribution of the positive and negative groups within the protein subunits are discussed. One particular segment of the protein chain appears to be so important for the secondary and/or tertiary structure of the protein subunit that amino acid replacements within this segment in general lead to a loss of infectivity. The 46 cases in which we have exactly located the positions of amino acid differences betweenvulgare and various TMV mutants and strains are summarized in Table 1. Combination of the data in Table 1 with the base compositions of the triplets as obtained from the cell free system ofE. coli permits conclusions about the nucleotide sequence within the triplets to be drawn. The triplets shown in Table 2 represent, at present, the best agreement between the data from the cell free system and the work with TMV mutants.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The positions of amino acid exchanges within eleven mutants of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) isolated after treatment with nitrous acid have been localized. The protein chemical results are given in Tables 1–11 in detail and summarized in Table 12. In the discussion the localized amino acid exchanges of 36 mutants which arose spontaneously or were isolated after nitrite treatment or fluorouracil incorporation and whose primary protein structure have been described in this and earlier papers were compared with the current “codon dictionary”. All of the amino acid exchanges can be “explained” by the postulation that alteration of only one of the three nucleotides within a codon (Table 13) has occurred. Of the 26 amino acid exchanges localized in mutants isolated after treatment with nitrous acid all but two (isoleucin→methionine and glutamic acid→aspartic acid) are compatible with the nucleotide alterations C→U and A→G postulated for the action of nitrous acid on TMV-RNA. The distribution of the localized amino acid exchanges along the protein chain of TMV is shown in Fig. 1.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The amino acid sequences of four strains of tobacco mosaic virus isolated in different parts of the world are compared. The differences between the strains are discussed with respect to special proteinchemical features (such as beginning of the chain, deletion of amino acids, number of different amino acids, sizes and distribution of regions with invariable amino acids) and with respect to the possibility of deducing the most probable nucleotide sequence for the coat protein cistron of tobacco mosaic virus. The complete amino acid sequences of the two RNA bacteriophage strains fr and f2 are compared. According to their coat proteins three groups of phages can be formed: 1) MS 2, f2 M 12 and R 17, 2) fr and 3) Qβ.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Amino acid eschanges within the protein chains of mutants of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) arisen spontaneously or isolated after incorporation of 5-fluorouracil into the RNA of the TMV strainvulgare, have been localized. To this end, the viral particles were split into protein and RNA, and the protein was digested with trypsin. After their isolation by column and paper chromatography, the tryptic peptides were hydrolyzed and their amino acid compositions were quantitatively determined. Peptides with amino acid differences compared to the strainvulgare were subjected to sequence analyses in order to localize the positions of the amino acid exchanges. The experimental results given in the tables for five mutants will be discussed together with the results from other TMV mutants isolated after nitrous acid treatment and to be described in a following paper.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1438-2385
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1435-2451
    Keywords: Key words Sepsis ; Systemic inflammatory response syndrome ; Antibiotics ; Pharmacodynamics ; Defense failure syndrome ; Intra-abdominal infection ; Infected pancreatic necrosis ; Controlled clinical trial
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: The goal of antibiotic therapy for surgical sepsis is to kill bacteria that intermittently or continuously reach the bloodstream from the residue of an operatively treated focus. While sepsis and conditions leading to sepsis compromise the immune system, antibiotics may become a fundamental determinant of the host's defense. No data from sound prospective randomized clinical antibiotic trials dealing with sepsis are available. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that treatment recommendations can be based on pharmacodynamics comparing in vitro activity of commonly used antimicrobials with concentrations sustained in vivo to provide for full coverage for bacteria of concern. Results: The application of strict criteria for antibiotic choice to avoid selection of primary resistant strains reveals that most commonly used antibiotics render insufficient activity to eliminate pathogens that commonly cause surgical sepsis. Antibiotics that sustain in vivo concentration exceeding fourfold the MIC100 (highest minimal inhibitory concentration for all (100%) species tested) of Escherichia coli, for example, are 400 mg ciprofloxacin IV (MIC100 of 1224 strains = 0.06 mg/dl, in vivo concentration = 1 mg/dl for 12 h), and 1000 mg imipenem/cilastatin (MIC100 of 3142 strains = 0.14 mg/dl, in vivo concentration = 2 mg/dl for 6 h). The third choice is one of the fourth- or, less convincingly, third-generation cephalosporins. Similar data for most pathogens causing sepsis are provided. First- and second-generation cephalosporins and penicillin β-lactamase inhibitor combinations generally do not achieve sufficient concentrations to cover the most important pathogens of sepsis. Conclusion: Sepsis is defined as a whole body's inflammatory response that is characterized by systemic signs and symptoms secondary to a focal infection. While many antibiotic trials have dealt with a focal infection, no prospective randomized antibiotic trial has dealt with sepsis per se. Antibiotic trials on focal infections generally exclude patients when their focal infection has progressed to sepsis. To circumvent the lack of controlled clinical trials we show that pharmacodynamics may provide sound foundation for antibiotic choice for sepsis.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
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    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 140 (1985), S. 343-346 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Escherichia coli ; Colicin M ; Functional domains ; Aminoterminal sequence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The structure of colicin M of Escherichia coli was studied with regard to its organization into functional domains. A proteolytic fragment with an Mr of 24,000 was isolated which comprised the carboxyterminal portion of the protein. It adsorbed to the outer membrane receptor protein and inhibited killing of cells by colicin M and by phage T5 that uses the same receptor. The fragment killed cells when the outer membrane was rendered permeable to macromolecules for a short time by the osmotic shock procedure. It is concluded that the fragment contains the receptor binding site and the active center but is lacking the sequence required for transport into cells. The carboxy-terminal amino acid sequence-Lys-Arg of the fragment was identical to that obtained from colicin M. Release of lysine and arginine led to inactivation of colicin M. The sequence of the first 39 amino acids of the amino terminal end of colicin M was determined.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die von Birdsong u. Rashad (1972) aufgestellte Behauptung, daß die sechsten Kinder koreanischer Familien signifikant mehr echte Fingerbeerenwirbel als die älteren Geschwister aufweisen, wird an Hand eines deutschen Befundmaterials von 43 Familien mit je 5 oder mehr Kindern varianzanalytisch geprüft, auch über die Zehenbeerenmuster. Unsere Untersuchungen kommen zu einem anderen Ergebnis: Die Anzahl der digitalen Wirbel steigt in unseren Familien mit zunehmender Geschwisterzahl statistisch nicht an, sondern sie bleibt innerhalb der familiären Erblichkeit ganz zufällig. Als erbbiologisch wichtig erscheint es, daß der Informationswert des Merkmals Wirbelanzahl durch die Geschwisteranzahl und-reihenfolge nach unseren Analysen offenbar nicht spezifizierend verwendet zu werden braucht. Wir glauben nicht, daß es auf Grund von weiteren Untersuchungen, auch nicht durch Untersuchungen an einem rassisch sehr andersartigen Befundmaterial, doch noch zu einer Bestätigung der eingangs zitierten Hypothese kommen wird. Vorläufig betrachtet gibt es auch keinen Anhaltspunkt dafür, daß das Gebäralter der Mutter die Wirbelanzahl der Kinder beeinflußt.
    Notes: Summary It was stated by Birdsong and Rashad (1972) that the child of birth order number six of Korean families has significantly more true whorls on the finger tips than older brothers and sisters. To verify this assertion we studied a sample of all members of 43 normal German families with 5 or more legitimate children. The findings of the epidermal finger pattern types and those of the toe patterns were analysed. Results indicate a different conclusion regarding the number of digital whorls which were not increased statistically with increasing number of sibs. The number of whorls were randomly distributed within the heritable range of variability of the particular family. It appears of importance that, due to our analyses, the value of information of the characteristic “number of whorls” is not reduced and does not require a specific consideration regarding birth order. Furthermore, it can be stated preliminarly that there is no hint pointing to an influence of the maternal age on the number of whorls in their offspring.
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