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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Three-component fermions with surface Fermi arcs in tungsten carbide Three-component fermions with surface Fermi arcs in tungsten carbide, Published online: 08 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41567-017-0021-8 Triply degenerate electronic structure—three-component fermions—protected by crystal symmetries is observed in tungsten carbide. The observed Fermi arcs associated with the surface states provide evidence of the non-trivial topology of the states.
    Print ISSN: 1745-2473
    Electronic ISSN: 1745-2481
    Topics: Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-03-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ma, Zhijun -- Li, Bo -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Mar 6;347(6226):1080. doi: 10.1126/science.347.6226.1080-a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China. zhijunm@fudan.edu.cn. ; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25745155" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biodiversity ; *Conservation of Natural Resources ; *Wetlands
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-07-15
    Description: Sherman et al. commented on the precedence of enantiodivergence, listing a number of congeneric natural products with opposite chirality. However, these "congeners" are not derived from enantiodivergent biosyntheses. Instead, they are antipodes arising from separate enantiomeric biosyntheses. A distinct feature of the biosynthesis of the cyclic pyrrole-imidazole dimers is the production of antipodal congeners without the corresponding enantiomers.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4536548/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4536548/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ma, Zhiqiang -- Wang, Xiaolei -- Wang, Xiao -- Rodriguez, Rodrigo A -- Moore, Curtis E -- Gao, Shuanhu -- Tan, Xianghui -- Ma, Yuyong -- Rheingold, Arnold L -- Baran, Phil S -- Chen, Chuo -- R01 GM073949/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM079554/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM073949/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM079554/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 10;349(6244):149. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa9626. Epub 2015 Jul 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. chuo.chen@utsouthwestern.edu. ; Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26160939" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cycloaddition Reaction ; Porifera/*metabolism ; Pyrroles/*chemical synthesis
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-07-07
    Description: Ferroelectric materials for photovoltaics have sparked great interest because of their switchable photoelectric responses and above-bandgap photovoltages that violate conventional photovoltaic theory. However, their relatively low photocurrent and power conversion efficiency limit their potential application in solar cells. To improve performance, conventional strategies focus mainly on narrowing the bandgap to better match the solar spectrum, leaving the fundamental connection between polar order and photovoltaic effect largely overlooked. We report large photovoltaic enhancement by A -site substitutions in a model ferroelectric photovoltaic material, BiFeO 3 . As revealed by optical measurements and supported by theoretical calculations, the enhancement is accompanied by the chemically driven rotational instability of the polarization, which, in turn, affects the charge transfer at the band edges and drives a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition, highlighting the strong coupling between polarization, lattice, and orbital order parameters in ferroelectrics. Polar order engineering thus provides an additional degree of freedom to further boost photovoltaic efficiency in ferroelectrics and related materials.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-07-19
    Description: China’s livestock industry has experienced a vast transition during the last three decades, with profound effects on domestic and global food provision, resource use, nitrogen and phosphorus losses, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the driving forces around this transition and its national and global consequences. The number of livestock units (LUs) tripled in China in less than 30 years, mainly through the growth of landless industrial livestock production systems and the increase in monogastric livestock (from 62 to 74% of total LUs). Changes were fueled through increases in demand as well as, supply of new breeds, new technology, and government support. Production of animal source protein increased 4.9 times, nitrogen use efficiency at herd level tripled, and average feed use and GHG emissions per gram protein produced decreased by a factor of 2 between 1980 and 2010. In the same period, animal feed imports have increased 49 times, total ammonia and GHG emissions to the atmosphere doubled, and nitrogen losses to watercourses tripled. As a consequence, China’s livestock transition has significant global impact. Forecasts for 2050, using the Shared Socio-economic Pathways scenarios, indicate major further changes in livestock production and impacts. On the basis of these possible trajectories, we suggest an alternative transition, which should be implemented by government, processing industries, consumers, and retailers. This new transition is targeted to increase production efficiency and environmental performance at system level, with coupling of crop-livestock production, whole chain manure management, and spatial planning as major components.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2011-08-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ma, Zhenqiang -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Aug 12;333(6044):830-1. doi: 10.1126/science.1209094.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA. mazq@engr.wisc.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21836004" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adhesiveness ; Elastomers ; Humans ; Mechanical Phenomena ; Monitoring, Physiologic/*instrumentation/*methods ; *Semiconductors ; Silicon ; Silicon Dioxide ; *Skin
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-11-22
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ma, Zhijun -- Melville, David S -- Liu, Jianguo -- Chen, Ying -- Yang, Hongyan -- Ren, Wenwei -- Zhang, Zhengwang -- Piersma, Theunis -- Li, Bo -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Nov 21;346(6212):912-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1257258.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China. No. 1261 Dovedale Road, Rural Delivery 2, Wakefield, Nelson, 7096, New Zealand. Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA. College of Nature Reserve, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China. Chair in Global Flyway Ecology, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, Post Office Box 11103, 9700 CC Groningen, Netherlands. Department of Marine Ecology, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Post Office Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, Netherlands. World Wildlife Fund China Shanghai Office, No. 121 Zhongshan North Road, Shanghai 200083, China. Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China. zhijunm@fudan.edu.cn. ; No. 1261 Dovedale Road, Rural Delivery 2, Wakefield, Nelson, 7096, New Zealand. ; Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA. ; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China. ; College of Nature Reserve, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China. Chair in Global Flyway Ecology, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, Post Office Box 11103, 9700 CC Groningen, Netherlands. Department of Marine Ecology, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Post Office Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, Netherlands. ; World Wildlife Fund China Shanghai Office, No. 121 Zhongshan North Road, Shanghai 200083, China. ; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China. ; Chair in Global Flyway Ecology, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, Post Office Box 11103, 9700 CC Groningen, Netherlands. Department of Marine Ecology, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Post Office Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25414287" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Migration ; Animals ; *Biodiversity ; Birds ; China ; *Conservation of Natural Resources ; *Wetlands
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-10-11
    Description: Cycloaddition is an essential tool in chemical synthesis. Instead of using light or heat as a driving force, marine sponges promote cycloaddition with a more versatile but poorly understood mechanism in producing pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids sceptrin, massadine, and ageliferin. Through de novo synthesis of sceptrin and massadine, we show that sponges may use single-electron oxidation as a central mechanism to promote three different types of cycloaddition. Additionally, we provide surprising evidence that, in contrast to previous reports, sceptrin, massadine, and ageliferin have mismatched chirality. Therefore, massadine cannot be an oxidative rearrangement product of sceptrin or ageliferin, as is commonly believed. Taken together, our results demonstrate unconventional chemical approaches to achieving cycloaddition reactions in synthesis and uncover enantiodivergence as a new biosynthetic paradigm for natural products.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4205478/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4205478/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ma, Zhiqiang -- Wang, Xiaolei -- Wang, Xiao -- Rodriguez, Rodrigo A -- Moore, Curtis E -- Gao, Shuanhu -- Tan, Xianghui -- Ma, Yuyong -- Rheingold, Arnold L -- Baran, Phil S -- Chen, Chuo -- R01 GM073949/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM079554/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM073949/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM079554/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Oct 10;346(6206):219-24. doi: 10.1126/science.1255677.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. chuo.chen@utsouthwestern.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25301624" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biosynthetic Pathways ; *Cycloaddition Reaction ; Molecular Structure ; Porifera/*metabolism ; Pyrroles/*chemical synthesis/chemistry/metabolism ; Stereoisomerism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-02-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Jing -- Sun, Junping -- Aryal, Achyut -- Raubenheimer, David -- Liu, Deguang -- Sheng, Yan -- Chang, Dunhu -- Shi, Lei -- Wu, Jian -- Ma, Zhong -- Wang, Hongchen -- Meng, Xiuxiang -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Feb 27;347(6225):957. doi: 10.1126/science.347.6225.957-a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China. ; Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand. ; Charles Perkins Centre and Faculty of Veterinary Science and School of Biological Sciences, the University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. ; College of Plant Protection, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. ; School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China. meng2014@ruc.edu.cn.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25722402" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; China/ethnology ; Climate Change ; Conservation of Natural Resources ; Culture ; *Ethnic Groups ; Human Migration ; Humans ; Life Style/ethnology ; Population Density ; *Reindeer
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-08-11
    Description: Woods provide bioinspiration for engineering materials due to their superior mechanical performance. We demonstrate a novel strategy for large-scale fabrication of a family of bioinspired polymeric woods with similar polyphenol matrix materials, wood-like cellular microstructures, and outstanding comprehensive performance by a self-assembly and thermocuring process of traditional resins. In contrast to natural woods, polymeric woods demonstrate comparable mechanical properties (a compressive yield strength of up to 45 MPa), preferable corrosion resistance to acid with no decrease in mechanical properties, and much better thermal insulation (as low as ~21 mW m –1 K –1 ) and fire retardancy. These bioinspired polymeric woods even stand out from other engineering materials such as cellular ceramic materials and aerogel-like materials in terms of specific strength and thermal insulation properties. The present strategy provides a new possibility for mass production of a series of high-performance biomimetic engineering materials with hierarchical cellular microstructures and remarkable multifunctionality.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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