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  • American Society of Hematology (ASH)  (2)
  • The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR)  (2)
  • 2015-2019  (4)
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  • 2015-2019  (4)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-02-09
    Description: Nonmuscle myosin II has been implicated in regulation of von Willebrand factor (VWF) release from endothelial Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs), but the specific role of myosin IIa isoform is poorly defined. Here, we report that myosin IIa is expressed both in primary human endothelial cells and intact mouse vessels, essential for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-mediated endothelial VWF secretion. Downregulation of myosin IIa by shRNAs significantly suppressed both forskolin- and epinephrine-induced VWF secretion. Endothelium-specific myosin IIa knockout mice exhibited impaired epinephrine-stimulated VWF release, prolonged bleeding time, and thrombosis. Further study showed that in resting cells, myosin IIa deficiency disrupted the peripheral localization of Rab27-positive WPBs along stress fibers; on stimulation by cAMP agonists, myosin IIa in synergy with zyxin promotes the formation of a functional actin framework, which is derived from preexisting cortical actin filaments, around WPBs, facilitating fusion and subsequent exocytosis. In summary, our findings not only identify new functions of myosin IIa in regulation of WPB positioning and the interaction between preexisting cortical actin filaments and exocytosing vesicles before fusion but also reveal myosin IIa as a physiological regulator of endothelial VWF secretion in stress-induced hemostasis and thrombosis.
    Keywords: Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Vascular Biology
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-15
    Description: A distinct hallmark of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the arrest of leukemic myeloblasts at an immature stage of development. Therapies that overcome differentiation arrest have emerged as a powerful strategy for treating AML, but targeting leukemia differentiation remains challenging, mainly because of an incomplete mechanistic understanding of the process. Here, we unveil a new role for cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) in blocking myeloid differentiation in AML. We show that among several interphase CDK, only CDK2 undergoes ubiquitin-dependent proteasome degradation, which is accompanied by AML cell differentiation. By using the yeast 2-hybrid system and functional analyses, KLHL6 was identified as a specific E3 ubiquitin ligase regulating the degradation of CDK2. Importantly, inhibiting CDK2, but not other cyclin-dependent kinases CDK1/4/6, effectively induced granulocytic differentiation in AML cell lines and 5 major subtypes of primary patient-derived AML samples. Mechanistically, CDK2 depletion led to the reactivation of differentiation pathway translation, and the differentiation blockade function of CDK2 may be achieved directly by maintaining the activity of PRDX2. Finally, CDK2 depletion arrested tumor growth of AML cells in nude mice and extended survival in both AML cell line and PDX-AML cells derived xenograft mouse models. Thus, our work not only provides experimental evidence for validating CDK2 as a potential therapeutic target for differentiation, but also uncovers the biological function of the CDK2-PRDX2 axis in blocking AML differentiation.
    Keywords: Myeloid Neoplasia
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-15
    Description: Purpose: Distinguishing aggressive prostate cancer from indolent disease improves personalized treatment. Although only few genetic variants are known to predispose to aggressive prostate cancer, synergistic interactions of HOXB13 G84E high-risk prostate cancer susceptibility mutation with other genetic loci remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the interplay of HOXB13 rs138213197 (G84E) and CIP2A rs2278911 (R229Q) germline variants on prostate cancer risk. Experimental Design: Genotyping was done in Finnish discovery cohort ( n = 2,738) and validated in Swedish ( n = 3,132) and independent Finnish ( n = 1,155) prostate cancer cohorts. Expression pattern analysis was followed by functional studies in prostate cancer cell models. Results: Interplay of HOXB13 (G84E) and CIP2A (R229Q) variants results in highest observed inherited prostate cancer risk (OR, 21.1; P = 0.000024). In addition, this synergism indicates a significant association of HOXB13 T and CIP2A T dual carriers with elevated risk for high Gleason score (OR, 2.3; P = 0.025) and worse prostate cancer–specific life expectancy (HR, 3.9; P = 0.048), and it is linked with high PSA at diagnosis (OR, 3.30; P = 0.028). Furthermore, combined high expression of HOXB13-CIP2A correlates with earlier biochemical recurrence. Finally, functional experiments showed that ectopic expression of variants stimulates prostate cancer cell growth and migration. In addition, we observed strong chromatin binding of HOXB13 at CIP2A locus and revealed that HOXB13 functionally promotes CIP2A transcription. The study is limited to retrospective Nordic cohorts. Conclusions: Simultaneous presence of HOXB13 T and CIP2A T alleles confers for high prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness of disease, earlier biochemical relapse, and lower disease-specific life expectancy. HOXB13 protein binds to CIP2A gene and functionally promotes CIP2A transcription.
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Purpose: mAbs such as anti-CD20 rituximab are proven therapies in B-cell malignancies, yet many patients develop resistance. Novel therapies against alternative targets are needed to circumvent resistance mechanisms. We sought to generate mAbs against human B-cell–activating factor receptor (BAFF-R/TNFRSF13C), which has not yet been targeted successfully for cancer therapy. Experimental Design: Novel mAbs were generated against BAFF-R, expressed as a natively folded cell surface immunogen on mouse fibroblast cells. Chimeric BAFF-R mAbs were developed and assessed for in vitro and in vivo monotherapy cytotoxicity. The chimeric mAbs were tested against human B-cell tumor lines, primary patient samples, and drug-resistant tumors. Results: Chimeric antibodies bound with high affinity to multiple human malignant B-cell lines and induced potent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against multiple subtypes of human lymphoma and leukemia, including primary tumors from patients who had relapsed after anti-CD20 therapy. Chimeric antibodies also induced ADCC against ibrutinib-resistant and rituximab-insensitive CD20-deficient variant lymphomas, respectively. Importantly, they demonstrated remarkable in vivo growth inhibition of drug-resistant tumor models in immunodeficient mice. Conclusions: Our method generated novel anti–BAFF-R antibody therapeutics with remarkable single-agent antitumor effects. We propose that these antibodies represent an effective new strategy for targeting and treating drug-resistant B-cell malignancies and warrant further development. Clin Cancer Res; 24(5); 1114–23. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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