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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-10-02
    Description: Purpose: Telomerase promoter mutations are highly prevalent in human tumors including melanoma. A subset of patients with metastatic melanoma often fail multiple therapies, and there is an unmet and urgent need to prolong disease control for those patients. Experimental Design: Numerous preclinical therapy-resistant models of human and mouse melanoma were used to test the efficacy of a telomerase-directed nucleoside, 6-thio-2'-deoxyguanosine (6-thio-dG). Integrated transcriptomics and proteomics approaches were used to identify genes and proteins that were significantly downregulated by 6-thio-dG. Results: We demonstrated the superior efficacy of 6-thio-dG both in vitro and in vivo that results in telomere dysfunction, leading to apoptosis and cell death in various preclinical models of therapy-resistant melanoma cells. 6-thio-dG concomitantly induces telomere dysfunction and inhibits the expression level of AXL. Conclusions: In summary, this study shows that indirectly targeting aberrant telomerase in melanoma cells with 6-thio-dG is a viable therapeutic approach in prolonging disease control and overcoming therapy resistance. Clin Cancer Res; 24(19); 4771–84. ©2018 AACR . See related commentary by Teh and Aplin, p. 4629
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Background: Lung cancer is associated with the highest mortality rate of all cancer types, and the most common histologic subtype of lung cancer is adenocarcinoma. To apply more effective therapeutic treatment, molecular markers that are able to predict the recurrence risk of patients with adenocarcinoma are critically needed. Mutations in TP53 tumor suppressor gene have been found in approximately 50% of lung adenocarcinoma cases, but the presence of a TP53 mutation does not always associate with increased mortality. Methods: The Cancer Genome Atlas RNA sequencing data of lung adenocarcinoma were used to define a novel gene signature for P53 deficiency. This signature was then used to calculate a sample-specific P53 deficiency score based on a patient's transcriptomic profile and tested in four independent lung adenocarcinoma microarray datasets. Results: In all datasets, P53 deficiency score was a significant predictor for recurrence-free survival where high P53 deficiency score was associated with poor survival. The score was prognostic even after adjusting for several key clinical variables including age, tumor stage, smoking status, and P53 mutation status. Furthermore, the score was able to predict recurrence-free survival in patients with stage I adenocarcinoma and was also associated with smoking status. Conclusions: The P53 deficiency score was a better predictor of recurrence-free survival compared with P53 mutation status and provided additional prognostic values to established clinical factors. Impact: The P53 deficiency score can be used to stratify early-stage patients into subgroups based on their risk of recurrence for aiding physicians to decide personalized therapeutic treatment. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(1); 86–95. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1055-9965
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-7755
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-01-28
    Description: Objectives This study aimed to assess the relationship between infection with multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) types and abnormal anal cytology in HIV-infected men. Design An observational, cross-sectional study. Setting A regional referral hospital in Taiwan. Participants In total, 714 HIV-infected men were enrolled between March 2011 and June 2016. Thin preparation anal Pap smears were interpreted according to the 2001 Bethesda System. Thirty-seven types of HPV were detected by reverse line blotting, including 13 oncogenic types and 24 non-oncogenic types. Outcome measures The relationship between anal HPV infection and abnormal anal cytology in people of Asian ethnicity and the coverage efficacy in HPV-vaccinated HIV-infected men. Results On anal cytology, 175 (24.5%) subjects had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or higher grades of dysplasia, including 87 (49.7%) with ASCUS, 73 (41.7%) with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) and 15 (8.6%) with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). A higher proportion of subjects with those without LSIL/HSIL (93.1% vs 67.3%, P〈0.0001) had multiple HPV types. The odds of having LSIL/HSIL increased with an increasing number of HPV types: the ORs ranged from 1 for no HPV types to 6.96 (95% CI 2.38 to 20.37) for more than five types (P trend 〈0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between LSIL/HSIL and the number of HPV genotypes present (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.42, P〈0.05). HPV types covered by the nonavalent HPV vaccine (types 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) were detected in 70.1% of the patients in this study. Conclusions The odds of having anal LSIL/HSIL are approximately seventimes greater in HIV-infected men with than withoutsix or more types of HPV. Multiple HPV types in HIV-infected patients deserves aggressive follow-up, and HPV vaccination programme require scaling up.
    Keywords: Oncology, Open access
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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