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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-10-02
    Description: Purpose: Telomerase promoter mutations are highly prevalent in human tumors including melanoma. A subset of patients with metastatic melanoma often fail multiple therapies, and there is an unmet and urgent need to prolong disease control for those patients. Experimental Design: Numerous preclinical therapy-resistant models of human and mouse melanoma were used to test the efficacy of a telomerase-directed nucleoside, 6-thio-2'-deoxyguanosine (6-thio-dG). Integrated transcriptomics and proteomics approaches were used to identify genes and proteins that were significantly downregulated by 6-thio-dG. Results: We demonstrated the superior efficacy of 6-thio-dG both in vitro and in vivo that results in telomere dysfunction, leading to apoptosis and cell death in various preclinical models of therapy-resistant melanoma cells. 6-thio-dG concomitantly induces telomere dysfunction and inhibits the expression level of AXL. Conclusions: In summary, this study shows that indirectly targeting aberrant telomerase in melanoma cells with 6-thio-dG is a viable therapeutic approach in prolonging disease control and overcoming therapy resistance. Clin Cancer Res; 24(19); 4771–84. ©2018 AACR . See related commentary by Teh and Aplin, p. 4629
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-18
    Description: The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental developmental process that is abnormally activated in cancer metastasis. Dynamic changes in alternative splicing occur during EMT. ESRP1 and hnRNPM are splicing regulators that promote an epithelial splicing program and a mesenchymal splicing program, respectively. The functional relationships between these splicing factors in the genome scale remain elusive. Comparing alternative splicing targets of hnRNPM and ESRP1 revealed that they coregulate a set of cassette exon events, with the majority showing discordant splicing regulation. Discordant splicing events regulated by hnRNPM show a positive correlation with splicing during EMT; however, concordant events do not, indicating the role of hnRNPM in regulating alternative splicing during EMT is more complex than previously understood. Motif enrichment analysis near hnRNPM–ESRP1 coregulated exons identifies guanine–uridine rich motifs downstream from hnRNPM-repressed and ESRP1-enhanced exons, supporting a general model of competitive binding to these cis -elements to antagonize alternative splicing. The set of coregulated exons are enriched in genes associated with cell migration and cytoskeletal reorganization, which are pathways associated with EMT. Splicing levels of coregulated exons are associated with breast cancer patient survival and correlate with gene sets involved in EMT and breast cancer subtyping. This study identifies complex modes of interaction between hnRNPM and ESRP1 in regulation of splicing in disease-relevant contexts.
    Print ISSN: 1355-8382
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-9001
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Background: Lung cancer is associated with the highest mortality rate of all cancer types, and the most common histologic subtype of lung cancer is adenocarcinoma. To apply more effective therapeutic treatment, molecular markers that are able to predict the recurrence risk of patients with adenocarcinoma are critically needed. Mutations in TP53 tumor suppressor gene have been found in approximately 50% of lung adenocarcinoma cases, but the presence of a TP53 mutation does not always associate with increased mortality. Methods: The Cancer Genome Atlas RNA sequencing data of lung adenocarcinoma were used to define a novel gene signature for P53 deficiency. This signature was then used to calculate a sample-specific P53 deficiency score based on a patient's transcriptomic profile and tested in four independent lung adenocarcinoma microarray datasets. Results: In all datasets, P53 deficiency score was a significant predictor for recurrence-free survival where high P53 deficiency score was associated with poor survival. The score was prognostic even after adjusting for several key clinical variables including age, tumor stage, smoking status, and P53 mutation status. Furthermore, the score was able to predict recurrence-free survival in patients with stage I adenocarcinoma and was also associated with smoking status. Conclusions: The P53 deficiency score was a better predictor of recurrence-free survival compared with P53 mutation status and provided additional prognostic values to established clinical factors. Impact: The P53 deficiency score can be used to stratify early-stage patients into subgroups based on their risk of recurrence for aiding physicians to decide personalized therapeutic treatment. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(1); 86–95. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1055-9965
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-7755
    Topics: Medicine
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