Purpose: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have clinical relevance, but their study has been limited by their low frequency. Experimental Design: We evaluated liquid biopsies by apheresis to increase CTC yield from patients suffering from metastatic prostate cancer, allow precise gene copy-number calls, and study disease heterogeneity. Results: Apheresis was well tolerated and allowed the separation of large numbers of CTCs; the average CTC yield from 7.5 mL of peripheral blood was 167 CTCs, whereas the average CTC yield per apheresis (mean volume: 59.5 mL) was 12,546 CTCs. Purified single CTCs could be isolated from apheresis product by FACS sorting; copy-number aberration (CNA) profiles of 185 single CTCs from 14 patients revealed the genomic landscape of lethal prostate cancer and identified complex intrapatient, intercell, genomic heterogeneity missed on bulk biopsy analyses. Conclusions: Apheresis facilitated the capture of large numbers of CTCs noninvasively with minimal morbidity and allowed the deconvolution of intrapatient heterogeneity and clonal evolution. Clin Cancer Res; 24(22); 5635–44. ©2018 AACR .