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  • The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR)  (2)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: Background: Despite age and sex differences in fecal hemoglobin (f-Hb) concentrations, most fecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening programs use population-average cut-points for test positivity. The impact of age/sex-specific threshold on FIT accuracy and colonoscopy demand for colorectal cancer screening are unknown. Methods: Using data from 723,113 participants enrolled in a Taiwanese population-based colorectal cancer screening with single FIT between 2004 and 2009, sensitivity and specificity were estimated for various f-Hb thresholds for test positivity. This included estimates based on a "universal" threshold, receiver-operating-characteristic curve–derived threshold, targeted sensitivity, targeted false-positive rate, and a colonoscopy-capacity-adjusted method integrating colonoscopy workload with and without age/sex adjustments. Results: Optimal age/sex-specific thresholds were found to be equal to or lower than the universal 20 μg Hb/g threshold. For older males, a higher threshold (24 μg Hb/g) was identified using a 5% false-positive rate. Importantly, a nonlinear relationship was observed between sensitivity and colonoscopy workload with workload rising disproportionately to sensitivity at 16 μg Hb/g. At this "colonoscopy-capacity-adjusted" threshold, the test positivity (colonoscopy workload) was 4.67% and sensitivity was 79.5%, compared with a lower 4.0% workload and a lower 78.7% sensitivity using 20 μg Hb/g. When constrained on capacity, age/sex-adjusted estimates were generally lower. However, optimizing age/-sex-adjusted thresholds increased colonoscopy demand across models by 17% or greater compared with a universal threshold. Conclusions: Age/sex-specific thresholds improve FIT accuracy with modest increases in colonoscopy demand. Impact: Colonoscopy-capacity-adjusted and age/sex-specific f-Hb thresholds may be useful in optimizing individual screening programs based on detection accuracy, population characteristics, and clinical capacity. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(6); 704–9. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1055-9965
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-7755
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Purpose: MPT0L145 has been developed as a FGFR inhibitor exhibiting significant anti-bladder cancer activity in vitro and in vivo via promoting autophagy-dependent cell death. Here, we aim to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Experimental Design: Autophagy flux, morphology, and intracellular organelles were evaluated by Western blotting, transmission electron microscope, and fluorescence microscope. Molecular docking and surface plasmon resonance assay were performed to identify drug–protein interaction. Lentiviral delivery of cDNA or shRNA and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing was used to modulate gene expression. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate was measured by a Seahorse XFe24 extracellular flux analyzer, and ROS level was measured by flow cytometry. Results: MPT0L145 persistently increased incomplete autophagy and phase-lucent vacuoles at the perinuclear region, which were identified as enlarged and alkalinized late-endosomes. Screening of a panel of lipid kinases revealed that MPT0L145 strongly inhibits PIK3C3 with a K d value of 0.53 nmol/L. Ectopic expression of PIK3C3 reversed MPT0L145-increased cell death and incomplete autophagy. Four residues (Y670, F684, I760, D761) at the ATP-binding site of PIK3C3 are important for the binding of MPT0L145. In addition, MPT0L145 promotes mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production, and DNA damage, which may in part, contribute to cell death. ATG5-knockout rescued MPT0L145-induced cell death, suggesting simultaneous induction of autophagy is crucial to its anticancer activity. Finally, our data demonstrated that MPT0L145 is able to overcome cisplatin resistance in bladder cancer cells. Conclusions: MPT0L145 is a first-in-class PIK3C3/FGFR inhibitor, providing an innovative strategy to design new compounds that increase autophagy, but simultaneously perturb its process to promote bladder cancer cell death. Clin Cancer Res; 24(5); 1176–89. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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