Purpose: Genomic profiling of tumor biopsies from advanced gastrointestinal and anal cancers is increasingly used to inform treatment. In some cases, tissue biopsy can be prohibitive, and we sought to investigate whether analysis of blood-derived circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may provide a minimally invasive alternative. Experimental Design: Hybrid capture–based genomic profiling of 62 genes was performed on blood-based ctDNA from 417 patients with gastrointestinal carcinomas to assess the presence of genomic alterations (GA) and compare with matched tissue samples. Results: Evidence of ctDNA was detected in 344 of 417 samples (82%), and of these, ≥1 reportable GA was detected in 89% (306/344) of samples. Frequently altered genes were TP53 (72%), KRAS (35%), PIK3CA (14%), BRAF (8%), and EGFR (7%). In temporally matched ctDNA and tissue samples available from 25 patients, 86% of alterations detected in tissue were also detected in ctDNA, including 95% of short variants, but only 50% of amplifications. Conversely, 63% of alterations detected in ctDNA were also detected in matched tissue. Examples demonstrating clinical utility are presented. Conclusions: Genomic profiling of ctDNA detected potentially clinically relevant GAs in a significant subset of patients with gastrointestinal carcinomas. In these tumor types, most alterations detected in matched tissue were also detected in ctDNA, and with the exception of amplifications, ctDNA sequencing routinely detected additional alterations not found in matched tissue, consistent with tumor heterogeneity. These results suggest feasibility and utility of ctDNA testing in advanced gastrointestinal cancers as a complementary approach to tissue testing, and further investigation is warranted. Clin Cancer Res; 24(8); 1881–90. ©2018 AACR .