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  • The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR)  (3)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-15
    Description: Purpose: Lauren diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinomas (DGAs) are generally genomically stable. We identified lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2C ( KMT2C ) as a frequently mutated gene and examined its role in DGA progression. Experimental Design: We performed whole exome sequencing on tumor samples of 27 patients with DGA who underwent gastrectomy. Lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2C ( KMT2C ) was analyzed in DGA cell lines and in patient tumors. Results: KMT2C was the most frequently mutated gene (11 of 27 tumors [41%]). KMT2C expression by immunohistochemistry in tumors from 135 patients with DGA undergoing gastrectomy inversely correlated with more advanced tumor stage ( P = 0.023) and worse overall survival ( P = 0.017). KMT2C shRNA knockdown in non-transformed HFE-145 gastric epithelial cells promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as demonstrated by increased expression of EMT-related proteins N-cadherin and Slug. Migration and invasion in gastric epithelial cells following KMT2C knockdown increased by 47- to 88-fold. In the DGA cell lines MKN-45 and SNU-668, which have lost KMT2C expression, KMT2C re-expression decreased expression of EMT-related proteins, reduced cell migration by 52% to 60%, and reduced cell invasion by 50% to 74%. Flank xenografts derived from KMT2C-expressing DGA organoids, compared with wild-type organoids, grew more slowly and lost their infiltrative leading edge. EMT can lead to the acquisition of cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotypes. KMT2C re-expression in DGA cell lines reduced spheroid formation by 77% to 78% and reversed CSC resistance to chemotherapy via promotion of DNA damage and apoptosis. Conclusions: KMT2C is frequently mutated in certain populations with DGA. KMT2C loss in DGA promotes EMT and is associated with worse overall survival.
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: Purpose: Various genetic driver aberrations have been identified among distinct anatomic and clinical subtypes of intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and these molecular alterations may be prognostic biomarkers and/or predictive of drug response. Experimental Design: Tumor samples from patients with cholangiocarcinoma who consented prospectively were analyzed using the MSK-IMPACT platform, a targeted next-generation sequencing assay that analyzes all exons and selected introns of 410 cancer-associated genes. Fisher exact tests were performed to identify associations between clinical characteristics and genetic alterations. Results: A total of 195 patients were studied: 78% intrahepatic and 22% extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The most commonly altered genes in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma were IDH1 (30%), ARID1A (23%), BAP1 (20%), TP53 (20%), and FGFR2 gene fusions (14%). A tendency toward mutual exclusivity was seen between multiple genes in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma including TP53:IDH1, IDH1:KRAS, TP53:BAP1 , and IDH1:FGFR2 . Alterations in CDKN2A/B and ERBB2 were associated with reduced survival and time to progression on chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Genetic alterations with potential therapeutic implications were identified in 47% of patients, leading to biomarker-directed therapy or clinical trial enrollment in 16% of patients. Conclusions: Cholangiocarcinoma is a genetically diverse cancer. Alterations in CDKN2A/B and ERBB2 are associated with negative prognostic implications in patients with advanced disease. Somatic alterations with therapeutic implications were identified in almost half of patients. These prospective data provide a contemporary benchmark for guiding the development of targeted therapies in molecularly profiled cholangiocarcinoma, and support to the use of molecular profiling to guide therapy selection in patients with advanced biliary cancers. Clin Cancer Res; 24(17); 4154–61. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-04-14
    Description: Purpose: Small-cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine tumor with a dismal prognosis and limited treatment options. As SCCB is histologically indistinguishable from small-cell lung cancer, a shared pathogenesis and cell of origin has been proposed. The aim of this study is to determine whether SCCBs arise from a preexisting urothelial carcinoma or share a molecular pathogenesis in common with small-cell lung cancer. Experimental Design: We performed an integrative analysis of 61 SCCB tumors to identify histology- and organ-specific similarities and differences. Results: SCCB has a high somatic mutational burden driven predominantly by an APOBEC-mediated mutational process. TP53, RB1 , and TERT promoter mutations were present in nearly all samples. Although these events appeared to arise early in all affected tumors and likely reflect an evolutionary branch point that may have driven small-cell lineage differentiation, they were unlikely the founding transforming event, as they were often preceded by diverse and less common driver mutations, many of which are common in bladder urothelial cancers, but not small-cell lung tumors. Most patient tumors (72%) also underwent genome doubling (GD). Although arising at different chronologic points in the evolution of the disease, GD was often preceded by biallelic mutations in TP53 with retention of two intact copies. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that small-cell cancers of the bladder and lung have a convergent but distinct pathogenesis, with SCCBs arising from a cell of origin shared with urothelial bladder cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 24(8); 1965–73. ©2017 AACR . See related commentary by Oser and Jänne, p. 1775
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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