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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-10-16
    Description: Purpose: Most patients with ovarian cancer receive paclitaxel chemotherapy, but less than half respond. Pre-treatment microtubule stability correlates with paclitaxel response in ovarian cancer cell lines. Microtubule stability can be increased by depletion of individual kinases. As microtubule stability can be regulated by phosphorylation of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), we reasoned that depletion of pairs of kinases that regulate phosphorylation of MAPs could induce microtubule stabilization and paclitaxel sensitization. Experimental Design: Fourteen kinases known to regulate paclitaxel sensitivity were depleted individually in 12 well-characterized ovarian cancer cell lines before measuring proliferation in the presence or absence of paclitaxel. Similar studies were performed by depleting all possible pairs of kinases in six ovarian cancer cell lines. Pairs that enhanced paclitaxel sensitivity across multiple cell lines were studied in depth in cell culture and in two xenograft models. Results: Transfection of siRNA against 10 of the 14 kinases enhanced paclitaxel sensitivity in at least six of 12 cell lines. Dual knockdown of IKBKB/STK39 or EDN2/TBK1 enhanced paclitaxel sensitivity more than silencing single kinases. Sequential knockdown was superior to concurrent knockdown. Dual silencing of IKBKB/STK39 or EDN2/TBK1 stabilized microtubules by inhibiting phosphorylation of p38 and MAP4, inducing apoptosis and blocking cell cycle more effectively than silencing individual kinases. Knockdown of IKBKB/STK39 or EDN2/TBK1 enhanced paclitaxel sensitivity in two ovarian xenograft models. Conclusions: Sequential knockdown of dual kinases increased microtubule stability by decreasing p38-mediated phosphorylation of MAP4 and enhanced response to paclitaxel in ovarian cancer cell lines and xenografts, suggesting a strategy to improve primary therapy. Clin Cancer Res; 24(20); 5072–84. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: Purpose: Gastric adenocarcinoma is the third most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Accurate and affordable noninvasive detection methods have potential value for screening and surveillance. Herein, we identify novel methylated DNA markers (MDM) for gastric adenocarcinoma, validate their discrimination for gastric adenocarcinoma in tissues from geographically separate cohorts, explore marker acquisition through the oncogenic cascade, and describe distributions of candidate MDMs in plasma from gastric adenocarcinoma cases and normal controls. Experimental Design: Following discovery by unbiased whole-methylome sequencing, candidate MDMs were validated by blinded methylation-specific PCR in archival case–control tissues from U.S. and South Korean patients. Top MDMs were then assayed by an analytically sensitive method (quantitative real-time allele-specific target and signal amplification) in a blinded pilot study on archival plasma from gastric adenocarcinoma cases and normal controls. Results: Whole-methylome discovery yielded novel and highly discriminant candidate MDMs. In tissue, a panel of candidate MDMs detected gastric adenocarcinoma in 92% to 100% of U.S. and South Korean cohorts at 100% specificity. Levels of most MDMs increased progressively from normal mucosa through metaplasia, adenoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma with variation in points of greatest marker acquisition. In plasma, a 3-marker panel ( ELMO1, ZNF569, C13orf18) detected 86% (95% CI, 71–95) of gastric adenocarcinomas at 95% specificity. Conclusions: Novel MDMs appear to accurately discriminate gastric adenocarcinoma from normal controls in both tissue and plasma. The point of aberrant methylation during oncogenesis varies by MDM, which may have relevance to marker selection in clinical applications. Further exploration of these MDMs for gastric adenocarcinoma screening and surveillance is warranted. Clin Cancer Res; 24(22); 5724–34. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-02
    Description: Researchers hypothesized that telomere shortening facilitates carcinogenesis. Previous studies found inconsistent associations between blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and cancer. Epigenetic reprogramming of telomere maintenance mechanisms may help explain this inconsistency. We examined associations between DNA methylation in telomere-related genes (TRG) and cancer. We analyzed 475 participants providing 889 samples 1 to 3 times (median follow-up, 10.1 years) from 1999 to 2013 in the Normative Aging Study. All participants were cancer-free at each visit and blood leukocytes profiled using the Illumina 450K array. Of 121 participants who developed cancer, 34 had prostate cancer, 10 melanoma, 34 unknown skin malignancies, and 43 another cancer. We examined 2,651 CpGs from 80 TRGs and applied a combination of Cox and mixed models to identify CpGs prospectively associated with cancer (at FDR 〈 0.05). We also explored trajectories of DNA methylation, logistic regression stratified by time to diagnosis/censoring, and cross-sectional models of LTL at first blood draw. We identified 30 CpGs on 23 TRGs whose methylation was positively associated with cancer incidence (β = 1.0–6.93) and one protective CpG in MAD1L1 (β = –0.65) , of which 87% were located in TRG promoters. Methylation trajectories of 21 CpGs increased in cancer cases relative to controls; at 4 to 8 years prediagnosis/censoring, 17 CpGs were positively associated with cancer. Three CpGs were cross-sectionally associated with LTL. TRG methylation may be a mechanism through which LTL dynamics reflect cancer risk. Future research should confirm these findings and explore potential mechanisms underlying these findings, including telomere maintenance and DNA repair dysfunction. Cancer Prev Res; 11(8); 511–22. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1940-6207
    Electronic ISSN: 1940-6215
    Topics: Medicine
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