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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Description: Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. In China, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains the major risk factor for HCC. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) among Chinese populations to identify novel genetic loci contributing to susceptibility to HBV-related HCC. Experimental Design: GWAS scan is performed in a collection of 205 HBV-related HCC trios (each trio includes an affected proband and his/her both parents), and 355 chronic HBV carriers with HCC (cases) and 360 chronic HBV carriers without HCC (controls), followed by two rounds of replication studies totally consisting of 3,796 cases and 2,544 controls. Results: We identified a novel association signal within the CDK14 gene at 7q21.13 (index rs10272859, OR = 1.28, P = 9.46 x 10 –10 ). Furthermore, we observed that the at-risk rs10272859[G] allele was significantly associated with higher mRNA expression levels of CDK14 in liver tissues. Chromosome conformation capture assays in liver cells confirmed that a physical interaction exists between the promoter region of CDK14 and the risk-associated SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium with the index rs10272859 at 7q21.13. This index rs10272859 also showed significant association with the survival of HCC patients. Conclusions: Our findings highlight a novel locus at 7q21.13 conferring both susceptibility and prognosis to HBV-related HCC, and suggest the CDK14 gene to be the functional target of the 7q21.13 locus. Clin Cancer Res; 24(4); 906–15. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-02-02
    Description: Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common head and neck cancer in Southeast Asia. Because local recurrence and distant metastasis are still the main causes of NPC treatment failure, it is urgent to identify new tumor markers and therapeutic targets for advanced NPC. Experimental Design: RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was applied to look for interchromosome translocation in NPC. PCR, FISH, and immunoprecipitation were used to examine the fusion gene expression at RNA, DNA, and protein levels in NPC biopsies. MTT assay, colony formation assay, sphere formation assay, co-immunoprecipitation, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, and in vivo chemoresistance assay were applied to explore the function of RARS-MAD1L1 in NPC. Results: We demonstrated that RARS-MAD1L1 was present in 10.03% (35/349) primary NPC biopsies and 10.7% (9/84) in head and neck cancer (HNC) samples. RARS-MAD1L1 overexpression increased cell proliferation, colony formation, and tumorigenicity in vitro , and the silencing of endogenous RARS-MAD1L1 reduced cancer cell growth and colony formation in vitro . In addition, RARS-MAD1L1 increased the side population (SP) ratio and induced chemo- and radioresistance. Furthermore RARS-MAD1L1 interacted with AIMP2, which resulted in activation of FUBP1/c-Myc pathway. The silencing of FUBP1 or the administration of a c-Myc inhibitor abrogated the cancer stem cell (CSC)-like characteristics induced by RARS-MAD1L1. The expression of c-Myc and ABCG2 was higher in RARS-MAD1L1 –positive HNC samples than in negative samples. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that RARS-MAD1L1 might contribute to tumorigenesis, CSC-like properties, and therapeutic resistance, at least in part, through the FUBP1/c-Myc axis, implying that RARS-MAD1L1 might serve as an attractive target for therapeutic intervention for NPC. Clin Cancer Res; 24(3); 659–73. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-02
    Description: Obesity increases risk of endometrial cancer through dysregulation of estrogen and insulin signaling. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of metformin or lifestyle intervention on endometrial proliferation in postmenopausal obese women. Secondary aims included evaluating obesity-related biomarkers and adverse events experienced. Obese, postmenopausal women with prediabetes were randomized into four groups for a 16-week intervention using a 2 (metformin 1700 mg/day vs. placebo) x 2 (lifestyle intervention vs. no lifestyle intervention) factorial design. Pre- and postintervention endometrial proliferation, anthropometrics, body composition, and serum biomarkers (sex hormones, sex hormone binding globulin, IGF-I, adiponectin, omentin, insulin, glucose, and others) were assessed. Data were analyzed with linear regression models and false-discovery rate correction. Of 576 women approached for the study, 52 attended initial screening, 29 were eligible and randomized, and 26 completed the study. Lifestyle intervention resulted in significant loss of weight (–4.23 kg, P = 0.006) and total fat mass (–3.23 kg, P 〈 0.001). Participants receiving metformin lost 3.43 kg of weight ( P = 0.023), but this was not statistically significant after multiple comparisons adjustment controlling false-discovery rate to 10%. Endometrial proliferation was low at baseline (mean 7.1%) and remained unchanged by 16 weeks, but included substantial variability. Metformin and lifestyle intervention produced minor changes to serum biomarkers. Lifestyle intervention produced the most significant changes in weight and body composition. While it is known that obese postmenopausal women are at increased risk for endometrial cancer, improved biomarkers are needed to stratify risk and test prevention strategies, particularly at the endometrial tissue level. Cancer Prev Res; 11(8); 477–90. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1940-6207
    Electronic ISSN: 1940-6215
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-02-09
    Description: Cisplatin-based therapy is highly toxic, but moderately effective in most cancers. Concurrent inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) results in antitumor activity and has organ-protective effects. The goal of this study was to determine the antitumor activity of PTUPB, an orally bioavailable COX-2/sEH dual inhibitor, in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine (GC) therapy. NSG mice bearing bladder cancer patient-derived xenografts were treated with vehicle, PTUPB, cisplatin, GC, or combinations thereof. Mouse experiments were performed with two different PDX models. PTUPB potentiated cisplatin and GC therapy, resulting in significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival. PTUPB plus cisplatin was no more toxic than cisplatin single-agent treatment as assessed by body weight, histochemical staining of major organs, blood counts, and chemistry. The combination of PTUPB and cisplatin increased apoptosis and decreased phosphorylation in the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways compared with controls. PTUPB treatment did not alter platinum–DNA adduct levels, which is the most critical step in platinum-induced cell death. The in vitro study using the combination index method showed modest synergy between PTUPB and platinum agents only in 5637 cell line among several cell lines examined. However, PTUPB is very active in vivo by inhibiting angiogenesis. In conclusion, PTUPB potentiated the antitumor activity of cisplatin-based treatment without increasing toxicity in vivo and has potential for further development as a combination chemotherapy partner. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(2); 474–83. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1535-7163
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-8514
    Topics: Medicine
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