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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
    Description: Purpose: The induced death signals following oncogene inhibition underlie clinical efficacy of molecular targeted therapies against human cancer, and defects of intact cell apoptosis machinery often lead to therapeutic failure. Despite potential importance, other forms of regulated cell death triggered by pharmacologic intervention have not been systematically characterized. Experimental Design: Pyroptotic cell death was assessed by immunoblot analysis, phase-contrast imaging, scanning electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. Tumor tissues of patients with lung cancer were analyzed using IHC. Functional impact of pyroptosis on drug response was investigated in cell lines and xenograft models. Results: We showed that diverse small-molecule inhibitors specifically targeting KRAS-, EGFR-, or ALK-driven lung cancer uniformly elicited robust pyroptotic cell death, in addition to simultaneously invoking cellular apoptosis. Upon drug treatment, the mitochondrial intrinsic apoptotic pathway was engaged and the mobilized caspase-3 protease cleaved and activated gasdermin E (GSDME, encoded by DFNA5 ), which permeabilized cytoplasmic membrane and executed cell-lytic pyroptosis. GSDME displayed ubiquitous expression in various lung cancer cell lines and clinical specimens, including KRAS -mutant, EGFR -altered, and ALK -rearranged adenocarcinomas. As a result, cooccurrence and interplay of apoptosis and pyroptosis were widespread in lung cancer cells, succumbing to genotype-matched regimens. We further demonstrated that pyroptotic cell death partially contributed to the drug response in a subset of cancer models. Conclusions: These results pinpoint GSDME-dependent pyroptosis as a previously unrecognized mechanism of action for molecular targeted agents to eradicate oncogene-addicted neoplastic cells, which may have important implications for the clinical development and optimal application of anticancer therapeutics.
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-04-04
    Description: Purpose: (i) To investigate the expression of the E3 ligase, RNF126, in human invasive breast cancer and its links with breast cancer outcomes; and (ii) to test the hypothesis that RNF126 determines the efficacy of inhibitors targeting the cell-cycle checkpoint kinase, CHEK1. Experimental Design: A retrospective analysis by immunohistochemistry (IHC) compared RNF126 staining in 110 invasive breast cancer and 78 paired adjacent normal tissues with clinicopathologic data. Whether RNF126 controls CHEK1 expression was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation and a CHEK1 promoter driven luciferase reporter. Staining for these two proteins by IHC using tissue microarrays was also conducted. Cell killing/replication stress induced by CHEK1 inhibition was evaluated in cells, with or without RNF126 knockdown, by MTT/colony formation, replication stress biomarker immunostaining and DNA fiber assays. Results: RNF126 protein expression was elevated in breast cancer tissue samples. RNF126 was associated with a poor clinical outcome after multivariate analysis and was an independent predictor. RNF126 promotes CHEK1 transcript expression. Critically, a strong correlation between RNF126 and CHEK1 proteins was identified in breast cancer tissue and cell lines. The inhibition of CHEK1 induced a greater cell killing and a higher level of replication stress in breast cancer cells expressing RNF126 compared to RNF126 depleted cells. Conclusions: RNF126 protein is highly expressed in invasive breast cancer tissue. The high expression of RNF126 is an independent predictor of a poor prognosis in invasive breast cancer and is considered a potential biomarker of a cancer's responsiveness to CHEK1 inhibitors. CHEK1 inhibition targets breast cancer cells expressing higher levels of RNF126 by enhancing replication stress. Clin Cancer Res; 24(7); 1629–43. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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