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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background: The prognostic and predictive role of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2) in breast cancer is still debated, and in particular, its role as a target of COX2 inhibitor (celecoxib) in neoadjuvant setting. Materials and Methods: We analyzed a series of 156 breast cancer samples from patients of the COX2 inhibitor-treated arm included in the REMAGUS-02 randomized phase II trial. COX2 gene expression was assessed by reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction using ribonucleic acid from frozen biopsies. Pathological complete response (pCR) was the surrogate end-point. Results: Significantly higher rates of grade 3, and estrogen and progesterone receptor negativity were observed in tumors with the highest expression of COX2. pCR rates were significantly higher in COX2-overexpressing tumors in patients receiving celecoxib. The test for interaction between COX2 gene expression and the celecoxib effect was statistically significant (p〈0.01), but was not retained in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion: COX2 overexpression is predictive of pCR in patients with celecoxib-treated tumors. The efficacy of celecoxib in breast cancer might be improved by quantification of COX2 gene expression.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
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    The International Institute of Anticancer Research (IIAR)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-28
    Description: UV radiation is acknowledged as the primary cause of photocarcinogenesis and therefore contributes to the development of skin cancer entities such as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and melanoma. Typical DNA photoproducts and indirect DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species are the result of UV radiation. UV-induced DNA damage is repaired by nucleotide excision repair, which consequently counteracts the development of mutations and skin carcinogenesis. Tumour-suppressor genes are inactivated by mutation and growth-promoting pathways are activated leading to disruption of cell-cycle progression. Depending on the skin cancer entity, some genes are more frequently affected than others. In BCC mutations in Patched or Smoothened are common and affect the Sonic hedgehog pathway. In SCC, cell regulator protein p53 (TP53) mutations are prevalent, as well as mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cyclin-dependent kinase 2A (CDKN2A), Rat sarcoma (RAS), or the tyrosine kinase Fyn (FYN). UV-induced mutations in TP53 and CDKN2A are frequent in melanoma. UV-induced inflammatory processes also facilitate photocarcinogenesis. Recent studies showed a connection between photocarcinogenesis and citrus consumption, phytochemicals, alcohol consumption, hormone replacement therapy, as well as oral contraceptive use. Preventative measures include adequate use of sun protection and skin cancer screening at regular intervals, as well as the use of chemopreventative agents.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
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    The International Institute of Anticancer Research (IIAR)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-28
    Description: Ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA lesions are almost exclusively removed by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, which is essential for prevention of skin cancer development. Patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are extremely sun sensitive due to a genetic defect in components of the NER cascade. They present with first signs of premature skin aging at an early age, with a considerably increased risk of developing UV-induced skin cancer. XP belongs to the group of DNA repair defective disorders that are mainly diagnosed in the clinic and in hindsight confirmed at the molecular level. Unfortunately, there are no causative treatment options for this rare, autosomal-recessive disorder, emphasizing the importance of an early diagnosis. Subsequently, UV-protective measures such as the reduction of exposure to environmental UV and regular skin cancer screenings should be undertaken to substantially improve prognosis as well as the disease course.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-04-28
    Description: BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to standard operating procedures (SOPs) during handling and processing of whole blood is one of the most frequent causes affecting the quality of serum and plasma. Yet, the quality of blood samples is of the utmost importance for reliable, conclusive research findings, valid diagnostics, and appropriate therapeutic decisions. METHODS: UHPLC-MS-driven nontargeted metabolomics was applied to identify biomarkers that reflected time to processing of blood samples, and a targeted UHPLC-MS analysis was used to quantify and validate these biomarkers. RESULTS: We found that (4E,14Z)-sphingadienine-C18-1-phosphate (S1P-d18:2) was suitable for the reliable assessment of the pronounced changes in the quality of serum and plasma caused by errors in the phase between collection and centrifugation of whole blood samples. We rigorously validated S1P-d18:2, which included the use of practicality tests on 〉1400 randomly selected serum and plasma samples that were originally collected during single- and multicenter trials and then stored in 11 biobanks in 3 countries. Neither life-threatening disease states nor strenuous metabolic challenges (i.e., high-intensity exercise) affected the concentration of S1P-d18:2. Cutoff values for sample assessment were defined (plasma, ≤0.085 μg/mL; serum, ≤0.154 μg/mL). CONCLUSIONS: Unbiased valid monitoring to check for adherence to SOP-dictated time for processing to plasma or serum and/or time to storage of whole blood at 4 °C is now feasible. This novel quality assessment step could enable scientists to uncover common preanalytical errors, allowing for identification of serum and plasma samples that should be excluded from certain investigations. It should also allow control of samples before long-term storage in biobanks.
    Keywords: Proteomics and Protein Markers
    Print ISSN: 0009-9147
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-8561
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-05-01
    Description: Background/Aim: Genomic signatures are needed for the determination of prognosis in patients with early stage, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancers. EndoPredict test is a RNA-based multigene assay that assesses the risk of 10-year relapse in this context. Quality assessment is a mandatory requirement for a laboratory to address the analytical quality of these molecular analyses. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the robustness of this prognostic test, its usefulness for the patient's treatment strategy, at the national level. Materials and Methods: This study presents a pilot quality assessment (QA) of the EndoPredict test using composite design, including the follow-up of internal control values (qREF) of the 12 genes of the assay for 151 independent tests and one formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) breast cancer sample. The evaluation of the test was performed by comparing the results of six independent medical laboratories. Results: All measures were highly reproducible and quantification of the qREF showed a standard deviation of less than 0.50 and a coefficient of variation always of 〈2%. All laboratories found concordant results for the breast cancer samples. The mean EndoPredict (EP) score for the breast cancer sample was 4.97±0.24. The mean of EPclin score was 3.07±0.05. Conclusion: This first French independent reported QA assessed the robustness and reproducibility of the EndoPredict test. Such a simple composite design could represent an adapted QA for an expensive diagnostic test.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-10-31
    Description: BACKGROUND: Measurements of plasma or urinary metanephrines are recommended for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL). What test offers optimal diagnostic accuracy for patients at high and low risk of disease, whether urinary free metanephrines offer advantages over deconjugated metanephrines, and what advantages are offered by including methoxytyramine in panels all remain unclear. METHODS: A population of 2056 patients with suspected PPGLs underwent prospective screening for disease using mass spectrometric-based measurements of plasma free, urinary deconjugated, and urinary free metanephrines and methoxytyramine. PPGLs were confirmed in 236 patients and were excluded in others on follow-up evaluation. RESULTS: Measurements of plasma free metabolites offered higher ( P 〈 0.01) diagnostic sensitivity (97.9%) than urinary free (93.4%) and deconjugated (92.9%) metabolites at identical specificities for plasma and urinary free metabolites (94.2%) but at a lower ( P 〈 0.005) specificity for deconjugated metabolites (92.1%). The addition of methoxytyramine offered little value for urinary panels but provided higher ( P 〈 0.005) diagnostic performance for plasma measurements than either urinary panel according to areas under ROC curves (0.991 vs 0.972 and 0.964). Diagnostic performance of urinary and plasma tests was similar for patients at low risk of disease, whereas plasma measurements were superior to both urinary panels for high-risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of PPGLs using plasma or urinary free metabolites provides advantages of fewer false-positive results compared with commonly measured deconjugated metabolites. The plasma panel offers better diagnostic performance than either urinary panel for patients at high risk of disease and, with appropriate preanalytics, provides the test of choice. Measurements of methoxytyramine in urine show limited diagnostic utility compared with plasma.
    Keywords: Endocrinology and Metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0009-9147
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-8561
    Topics: Medicine
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