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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-11-07
    Description: The chemokine receptor CXCR3 plays a central role in inflammation by mediating effector/memory T cell migration in various diseases; however, drugs targeting CXCR3 and other chemokine receptors are largely ineffective in treating inflammation. Chemokines, the endogenous peptide ligands of chemokine receptors, can exhibit so-called biased agonism by selectively activating either G protein– or β-arrestin–mediated signaling after receptor binding. Biased agonists might be used as more targeted therapeutics to differentially regulate physiological responses, such as immune cell migration. To test whether CXCR3-mediated physiological responses could be segregated by G protein– and β-arrestin–mediated signaling, we identified and characterized small-molecule biased agonists of the receptor. In a mouse model of T cell–mediated allergic contact hypersensitivity (CHS), topical application of a β-arrestin–biased, but not a G protein–biased, agonist potentiated inflammation. T cell recruitment was increased by the β-arrestin–biased agonist, and biopsies of patients with allergic CHS demonstrated coexpression of CXCR3 and β-arrestin in T cells. In mouse and human T cells, the β-arrestin–biased agonist was the most efficient at stimulating chemotaxis. Analysis of phosphorylated proteins in human lymphocytes showed that β-arrestin–biased signaling activated the kinase Akt, which promoted T cell migration. This study demonstrates that biased agonists of CXCR3 produce distinct physiological effects, suggesting discrete roles for different endogenous CXCR3 ligands and providing evidence that biased signaling can affect the clinical utility of drugs targeting CXCR3 and other chemokine receptors.
    Print ISSN: 1945-0877
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-26
    Description: G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) use diverse mechanisms to regulate the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2. β-Arrestins (βArr1/2) are ubiquitous inhibitors of G protein signaling, promoting GPCR desensitization and internalization and serving as scaffolds for ERK1/2 activation. Studies using CRISPR/Cas9 to delete βArr1/2 and G proteins have cast doubt on the role of β-arrestins in activating specific pools of ERK1/2. We compared the effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown of βArr1/2 and reconstitution with βArr1/2 in three different parental and CRISPR-derived βArr1/2 knockout HEK293 cell pairs to assess the effect of βArr1/2 deletion on ERK1/2 activation by four G s -coupled GPCRs. In all parental lines with all receptors, ERK1/2 stimulation was reduced by siRNAs specific for βArr2 or βArr1/2. In contrast, variable effects were observed with CRISPR-derived cell lines both between different lines and with activation of different receptors. For β 2 adrenergic receptors (β 2 ARs) and β 1 ARs, βArr1/2 deletion increased, decreased, or had no effect on isoproterenol-stimulated ERK1/2 activation in different CRISPR clones. ERK1/2 activation by the vasopressin V 2 and follicle-stimulating hormone receptors was reduced in these cells but was enhanced by reconstitution with βArr1/2. Loss of desensitization and receptor internalization in CRISPR βArr1/2 knockout cells caused β 2 AR-mediated stimulation of ERK1/2 to become more dependent on G proteins, which was reversed by reintroducing βArr1/2. These data suggest that βArr1/2 function as a regulatory hub, determining the balance between mechanistically different pathways that result in activation of ERK1/2, and caution against extrapolating results obtained from βArr1/2- or G protein–deleted cells to GPCR behavior in native systems.
    Print ISSN: 1945-0877
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Neurons modulate gene expression in response to extrinsic signals to enable brain development, cognition, and learning and to process stimuli that regulate systemic physiological functions. This signal-to-gene communication is facilitated by posttranslational modifications such as S-nitrosylation, the covalent attachment of a nitric oxide (NO) moiety to cysteine thiols. In the cerebral cortex, S-nitrosylation of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is required for gene transcription during neuronal development, but few other nuclear targets of S-nitrosylation have been identified to date. We used S-nitrosothiol resin-assisted capture on NO donor-treated nuclear extracts from rat cortical neurons and identified 614 S-nitrosylated nuclear proteins. Of these, 131 proteins have not previously been shown to be S-nitrosylated in any system, and 555 are previously unidentified targets of S-nitrosylation in neurons. The sites of S-nitrosylation were identified for 59% of the targets, and motifs containing single lysines were found at 33% of these sites. In addition, lysine motifs were necessary for promoting the S-nitrosylation of HDAC2 and methyl-CpG binding protein 3 (MBD3). Moreover, S-nitrosylation of the histone-binding protein RBBP7 was necessary for dendritogenesis of cortical neurons in culture. Together, our findings characterize S-nitrosylated nuclear proteins in neurons and identify S-nitrosylation motifs that may be shared with other targets of NO signaling.
    Print ISSN: 1945-0877
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-05-23
    Description: Members of the casein kinase 1 (CK1) family of serine-threonine protein kinases are implicated in the regulation of many cellular processes, including the cell cycle, circadian rhythms, and Wnt and Hedgehog signaling. Because these kinases exhibit constitutive activity in biochemical assays, it is likely that their activity in cells is controlled by subcellular localization, interactions with inhibitory proteins, targeted degradation, or combinations of these mechanisms. We identified members of the FAM83 family of proteins as partners of CK1 in cells. All eight members of the FAM83 family (FAM83A to FAM83H) interacted with the α and α-like isoforms of CK1; FAM83A, FAM83B, FAM83E, and FAM83H also interacted with the and isoforms of CK1. We detected no interaction between any FAM83 member and the related CK11, CK12, and CK13 isoforms. Each FAM83 protein exhibited a distinct pattern of subcellular distribution and colocalized with the CK1 isoform(s) to which it bound. The interaction of FAM83 proteins with CK1 isoforms was mediated by the conserved domain of unknown function 1669 (DUF1669) that characterizes the FAM83 family. Mutations in FAM83 proteins that prevented them from binding to CK1 interfered with the proper subcellular localization and cellular functions of both the FAM83 proteins and their CK1 binding partners. On the basis of its function, we propose that DUF1669 be renamed the polypeptide anchor of CK1 domain.
    Print ISSN: 1945-0877
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-02-01
    Description: Although Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnant women can cause placental damage, intrauterine growth restriction, microcephaly, and fetal demise, these disease manifestations only became apparent in the context of a large epidemic in the Americas. We hypothesized that ZIKV is not unique among arboviruses in its ability to cause congenital infection. To evaluate this, we tested the capacity of four emerging arboviruses [West Nile virus (WNV), Powassan virus (POWV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Mayaro virus (MAYV)] from related (flavivirus) and unrelated (alphavirus) genera to infect the placenta and fetus in immunocompetent, wild-type mice. Although all four viruses caused placental infection, only infection with the neurotropic flaviviruses (WNV and POWV) resulted in fetal demise. WNV and POWV also replicated efficiently in second-trimester human maternal (decidua) and fetal (chorionic villi and fetal membrane) explants, whereas CHIKV and MAYV replicated less efficiently. In mice, RNA in situ hybridization and histopathological analysis revealed that WNV infected the placenta and fetal central nervous system, causing injury to the developing brain. In comparison, CHIKV and MAYV did not cause substantive placental or fetal damage despite evidence of vertical transmission. On the basis of the susceptibility of human maternal and fetal tissue explants and pathogenesis experiments in immunocompetent mice, other emerging neurotropic flaviviruses may share with ZIKV the capacity for transplacental transmission, as well as subsequent infection and injury to the developing fetus.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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