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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-10-23
    Description: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) belongs to the picornavirus family and was first isolated in CA, USA, in 1962. EV-D68 can cause severe cranial nerve system damage such as flaccid paralysis and acute respiratory diseases such as pneumonia. There are currently no efficient therapeutic methods or effective prophylactics. In this study, we isolated the mAb A6-1 from an EV-D68–infected rhesus macaque ( Macaca mulatta ) and found that the Ab provided effective protection in EV-D68 intranasally infected suckling mice. We observed that A6-1 bound to the DE loop of EV-D68 VP1 and interfered with the interaction between the EV-D68 virus and α2,6-linked sialic acids of the host cell. The production of A6-1 and its Ab properties present a bridging study for EV-D68 vaccine design and provide a tool for analyzing the process by which Abs can inhibit EV-D68 infection.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-28
    Description: Objectives This study aimed to assess the relationship between infection with multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) types and abnormal anal cytology in HIV-infected men. Design An observational, cross-sectional study. Setting A regional referral hospital in Taiwan. Participants In total, 714 HIV-infected men were enrolled between March 2011 and June 2016. Thin preparation anal Pap smears were interpreted according to the 2001 Bethesda System. Thirty-seven types of HPV were detected by reverse line blotting, including 13 oncogenic types and 24 non-oncogenic types. Outcome measures The relationship between anal HPV infection and abnormal anal cytology in people of Asian ethnicity and the coverage efficacy in HPV-vaccinated HIV-infected men. Results On anal cytology, 175 (24.5%) subjects had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or higher grades of dysplasia, including 87 (49.7%) with ASCUS, 73 (41.7%) with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) and 15 (8.6%) with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). A higher proportion of subjects with those without LSIL/HSIL (93.1% vs 67.3%, P〈0.0001) had multiple HPV types. The odds of having LSIL/HSIL increased with an increasing number of HPV types: the ORs ranged from 1 for no HPV types to 6.96 (95% CI 2.38 to 20.37) for more than five types (P trend 〈0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between LSIL/HSIL and the number of HPV genotypes present (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.42, P〈0.05). HPV types covered by the nonavalent HPV vaccine (types 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) were detected in 70.1% of the patients in this study. Conclusions The odds of having anal LSIL/HSIL are approximately seventimes greater in HIV-infected men with than withoutsix or more types of HPV. Multiple HPV types in HIV-infected patients deserves aggressive follow-up, and HPV vaccination programme require scaling up.
    Keywords: Oncology, Open access
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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