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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Description: Sublytic C5b-9 formation on glomerular mesangial cells in rat Thy-1 nephritis (Thy-1N), a model of human mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis, is accompanied by the production of proinflammatory cytokines, but the relationship between sublytic C5b-9 and cytokine synthesis and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To explore the problems mentioned above, in this study, we first examined the levels of proinflammatory ILs (e.g., IL-23 and IL-36a) as well as transcription factor (KLF4) and coactivator (PCAF) in the renal tissues of Thy-1N rats and in the glomerular mesangial cell line (HBZY-1) stimulated by sublytic C5b-9. Then, we further determined the role of KLF4 and PCAF in sublytic C5b-9–induced IL-23 and IL-36a production as well as the related mechanism. Our results showed that the levels of KLF4, PCAF, IL-23, and IL-36a were obviously elevated. Mechanistic investigation revealed that sublytic C5b-9 stimulation could increase IL-23 and IL-36a synthesis through KLF4 and PCAF upregulation, and KLF4 and PCAF could form a complex, binding to the IL-23 or IL-36a promoter in a KLF4-dependent manner, causing gene transcription. Importantly, KLF4 acetylation by PCAF contributed to sublytic C5b-9–induced IL-23 and IL-36a transcription. Besides, the KLF4 binding regions on IL-23 or IL-36a promoters and the KLF4 lysine site acetylated by PCAF were identified. Furthermore, silencing renal KLF4 or PCAF gene could significantly inhibit IL-23 or IL-36a secretion and tissue damage of Thy-1N rats. Collectively, these findings implicate that the KLF4/PCAF interaction and KLF4 acetylation by PCAF play a pivotal role in the sublytic C5b-9–mediated IL-23 and IL-36a production of Thy-1N rats.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: IL-33 released by epithelial cells and immune cells functions as an alarmin and can induce both type 1 and type 2 immune responses. However, the role of IL-33 release in tumor development is still not clear. In this study, we examined the function of released IL-33 in murine hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) models by hydrodynamically injecting either IL-33–expressing tumor cells or IL-33–expressing plasmids into the liver of tumor-bearing mice. Tumor growth was greatly inhibited by IL-33 release. This antitumor effect of IL-33 was dependent on suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) because it was diminished in ST2 –/– mice. Moreover, HCC patients with high IL-33 expression have prolonged overall survival compared with the patients with low IL-33 expression. Further study showed that there were increased percentages and numbers of activated and effector CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in both spleen and liver in IL-33–expressing tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, IFN- production of the CD4 + and CD8 + T cells was upregulated in both spleen and liver by IL-33. The cytotoxicity of CTLs from IL-33–expressing mice was also enhanced. In vitro rIL-33 treatment could preferentially expand CD8 + T cells and promote CD4 + and CD8 + T cell activation and IFN- production. Depletion of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells diminished the antitumor activity of IL-33, suggesting that the antitumor function of released IL-33 was mediated by both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Taken together, we demonstrated in murine HCC models that IL-33 release could inhibit tumor development through its interaction with ST2 to promote antitumor CD4 + and CD8 + T cell responses.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-05
    Description: FCRL4, a low-affinity IgA Ab receptor with strong immunoregulatory potential, is an identifying feature of a tissue-based population of memory B cells (Bmem). We used two independent approaches to perform a comparative analysis of the Ag receptor repertoires of FCRL4 + and FCRL4 – Bmem in human tonsils. We determined that FCRL4 + Bmem displayed lower levels of somatic mutations in their Ag receptors compared with FCRL4 – Bmem but had similar frequencies of variable gene family usage. Importantly, Abs with reactivity to commensal microbiota were enriched in FCRL4 + cells, a phenotype not due to polyreactive binding characteristics. Our study links expression of the immunoregulatory FCRL4 molecule with increased recognition of commensal microbial Ags.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-02-21
    Description: Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD), once ruptured, is devastating to patients, and no effective pharmaceutical therapy is available. Anaphylatoxins released by complement activation are involved in a variety of diseases. However, the role of the complement system in TAD is unknown. We found that plasma levels of C3a, C4a, and C5a were significantly increased in patients with TAD. Elevated circulating C3a levels were also detected in the developmental process of mouse TAD, which was induced by β-aminopropionitrile monofumarate (BAPN) treatment, with enhanced expression of C1q and properdin in mouse dissected aortas. These findings indicated activation of classical and alternative complement pathways. Further, expression of C3aR was obviously increased in smooth muscle cells of human and mouse dissected aortas, and knockout of C3aR notably inhibited BAPN-induced formation and rupture of TAD in mice. C3aR antagonist administered pre- and post-BAPN treatment attenuated the development of TAD. We found that C3aR knockout decreased matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) expression in BAPN-treated mice. Additionally, recombinant C3a stimulation enhanced MMP2 expression and activation in smooth muscle cells that were subjected to mechanical stretch. Finally, we generated MMP2-knockdown mice by in vivo MMP2 short hairpin RNA delivery using recombinant adeno-associated virus and found that MMP2 deficiency significantly reduced the formation of TAD. Therefore, our study suggests that the C3a – C3aR axis contributes to the development of TAD via regulation of MMP2 expression. Targeting the C3a–C3aR axis may represent a strategy for inhibiting the formation of TAD.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-19
    Description: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the flaviviruses that targets the CNS and causes encephalitis in humans. The mechanism of TBEV that causes CNS destruction remains unclear. It has been reported that RANTES-mediated migration of human blood monocytes and T lymphocytes is specifically induced in the brain of mice infected with TBEV, which causes ensuing neuroinflammation and may contribute to brain destruction. However, the viral components responsible for RANTES induction and the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully addressed. In this study, we demonstrate that the NS5, but not other viral proteins of TBEV, induces RANTES production in human glioblastoma cell lines and primary astrocytes. TBEV NS5 appears to activate the IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) signaling pathway in a manner dependent on RIG-I/MDA5, which leads to the nuclear translocation of IRF-3 to bind with RANTES promoter. Further studies reveal that the activity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) but not the RNA cap methyltransferase is critical for TBEV NS5–induced RANTES expression, and this is likely due to RdRP-mediated synthesis of dsRNA. Additional data indicate that the residues at K359, D361, and D664 of TBEV NS5 are critical for RdRP activity and RANTES induction. Of note, NS5s from other flaviviruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Zika virus, and dengue virus, can also induce RANTES expression, suggesting the significance of NS5-induced RANTES expression in flavivirus pathogenesis. Our findings provide a foundation for further understanding how flaviviruses cause neuroinflammation and a potential viral target for intervention.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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