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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-05
    Description: There are currently limited insights into the progression of human primary humoral immunity despite numerous studies in experimental models. In this study, we analyzed a primary and related secondary parenteral keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) immunization in five human adults. The primary challenge elicited discordant KLH-specific serum and blood effector B cell responses (i.e., dominant serum KLH-specific IgG and IgM levels versus dominant KLH-specific IgA plasmablast frequencies). Single-cell IgH sequencing revealed early appearance of highly (〉15 mutations) mutated circulating KLH-specific plasmablasts 2 wk after primary KLH immunization, with simultaneous KLH-specific plasmablasts carrying non- and low-mutated IgH sequences. The data suggest that the highly mutated cells might originate from cross-reactive memory B cells (mBCs) rather than from the naive B cell repertoire, consistent with previous reported mutation rates and the presence of KLH-reactive mBCs in naive vaccinees prior to immunization. Whereas upon secondary immunization, serum Ab response kinetics and plasmablast mutation loads suggested the exclusive reactivation of KLH-specific mBCs, we, however, detected only little clonal overlap between the peripheral KLH-specific secondary plasmablast IgH repertoire and the primary plasmablast and mBC repertoire, respectively. Our data provide novel mechanistic insights into human humoral immune responses and suggest that primary KLH immunization recruits both naive B cells and cross-reactive mBCs, whereas secondary challenge exclusively recruits from a memory repertoire, with little clonal overlap with the primary response.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with extraintestinal diseases such as primary sclerosing cholangitis in the liver. Interestingly, it is known that an imbalance between Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Treg) and Th17 cells is involved in inflammatory bowel disease and also in primary sclerosing cholangitis. To explain these associations, one hypothesis is that intestinal inflammation and barrier defects promote liver disease because of the influx of bacteria and inflammatory cells to the liver. However, whether and how this is linked to the Treg and Th17 cell imbalance is unclear. To address this, we used dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and T cell transfer colitis mouse models. We analyzed the pathological conditions of the intestine and liver on histological, cellular, and molecular levels. We observed bacterial translocation and an influx of inflammatory cells, in particular Th17 cells, to the liver during colitis. In the DSS colitis model, in which Treg were concomitantly increased in the liver, we did not observe an overt pathological condition of the liver. In contrast, the T cell–mediated colitis model, in which Treg are not abundant, was associated with marked liver inflammation and a pathological condition. Of note, upon depletion of Treg in DEREG mice, DSS colitis promotes accumulation of Th17 cells and a pathological condition of the liver. Finally, we studied immune cell migration using KAEDE mice and found that some of these cells had migrated directly from the inflamed intestine into the liver. Overall, these data indicate that colitis can promote a pathological condition of the liver and highlight an important role of Treg in controlling colitis-associated liver inflammation.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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