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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-10-06
    Description: Recruitment of poliovirus (PV) RNA to the human ribosome requires the coordinated interaction of the viral internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and several host cellular initiation factors and IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs). Attenuated PV Sabin strains contain point mutations in the PV IRES domain V (dV) that inhibit viral translation. Remarkably, attenuation is most apparent in cells of the central nervous system, but the molecular basis to explain this is poorly understood. The dV contains binding sites for eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and polypyrimidine tract–binding protein (PTB). Impaired binding of these proteins to the mutant IRESs has been observed, but these effects have not been quantitated. We used a fluorescence anisotropy assay to reveal that the Sabin mutants reduce the equilibrium dissociation constants of eIF4G and PTB to the PV IRES by up to 6-fold. Using the most inhibitory Sabin 3 mutant, we used a real-time fluorescence helicase assay to show that the apparent affinity of an active eIF4G/4A/4B helicase complex for the IRES is reduced by 2.5-fold. The Sabin 3 mutant did not alter the maximum rate of eIF4A-dependent helicase activity, suggesting that this mutant primarily reduces the affinity, rather than activity, of the unwinding complex. To confirm this affinity model of attenuation, we show that eIF4G overexpression in HeLa cells overcomes the attenuation of a Sabin 3 mutant PV–luciferase replicon. Our study provides a quantitative framework for understanding the mechanism of PV Sabin attenuation and provides an explanation for the previously observed cell type–specific translational attenuation.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9258
    Electronic ISSN: 1083-351X
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-07
    Description: Transcellular propagation of protein aggregate “seeds” has been proposed to mediate the progression of neurodegenerative diseases in tauopathies and α-synucleinopathies. We previously reported that tau and α-synuclein aggregates bind heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on the cell surface, promoting cellular uptake and intracellular seeding. However, the specificity and binding mode of these protein aggregates to HSPGs remain unknown. Here, we measured direct interaction with modified heparins to determine the size and sulfation requirements for tau, α-synuclein, and β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregate binding to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Varying the GAG length and sulfation patterns, we next conducted competition studies with heparin derivatives in cell-based assays. Tau aggregates required a precise GAG architecture with defined sulfate moieties in the N- and 6-O-positions, whereas the binding of α-synuclein and Aβ aggregates was less stringent. To determine the genes required for aggregate uptake, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to individually knock out the major genes of the HSPG synthesis pathway in HEK293T cells. Knockouts of the extension enzymes exostosin 1 (EXT1), exostosin 2 (EXT2), and exostosin-like 3 (EXTL3), as well as N-sulfotransferase (NDST1) or 6-O-sulfotransferase (HS6ST2) significantly reduced tau uptake, consistent with our biochemical findings, and knockouts of EXT1, EXT2, EXTL3, or NDST1, but not HS6ST2 reduced α-synuclein uptake. In summary, tau aggregates display specific interactions with HSPGs that depend on GAG length and sulfate moiety position, whereas α-synuclein and Aβ aggregates exhibit more flexible interactions with HSPGs. These principles may inform the development of mechanism-based therapies to block transcellular propagation of amyloid protein–based pathologies.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9258
    Electronic ISSN: 1083-351X
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-10-20
    Description: The tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a negative regulator of mTOR complex 1, a signaling node promoting cellular growth in response to various nutrients and growth factors. However, several regulators in TSC signaling still await discovery and characterization. Using pulldown and MS approaches, here we identified the TSC complex member, TBC1 domain family member 7 (TBC1D7), as a binding partner for PH domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1), a negative regulator of Akt kinase signaling. Most TBC domain–containing proteins function as Rab GTPase–activating proteins (RabGAPs), but the crystal structure of TBC1D7 revealed that it lacks residues critical for RabGAP activity. Sequence analysis identified a putative site for both Akt-mediated phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding at Ser-124, and we found that Akt phosphorylates TBC1D7 at Ser-124. However, this phosphorylation had no effect on the binding of TBC1D7 to TSC1, but stabilized TBC1D7. Moreover, 14-3-3 protein both bound and stabilized TBC1D7 in a growth factor–dependent manner, and a phospho-deficient substitution, S124A, prevented this interaction. The crystal structure of 14-3-3ζ in complex with a phospho-Ser-124 TBC1D7 peptide confirmed the direct interaction between 14-3-3 and TBC1D7. The sequence immediately upstream of Ser-124 aligned with a canonical β-TrCP degron, and we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase β-TrCP2 ubiquitinates TBC1D7 and decreases its stability. Our findings reveal that Akt activity determines the phosphorylation status of TBC1D7 at the phospho-switch Ser-124, which governs binding to either 14-3-3 or β-TrCP2, resulting in increased or decreased stability of TBC1D7, respectively.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9258
    Electronic ISSN: 1083-351X
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-11-02
    Description: mRNA translation in axons enables neurons to introduce new proteins at sites distant from their cell body. mRNA-protein interactions drive this post-transcriptional regulation, yet knowledge of RNA binding proteins (RBP) in axons is limited. Here we used proteomics to identify RBPs interacting with the axonal localizing motifs of Nrn1 , Hmgb1 , Actb , and Gap43 mRNAs, revealing many novel RBPs in axons. Interestingly, no RBP is shared between all four RNA motifs, suggesting graded and overlapping specificities of RBP-mRNA pairings. A systematic assessment of axonal mRNAs interacting with hnRNP H1, hnRNP F, and hnRNP K, proteins that bound with high specificity to Nrn1 and Hmgb1 , revealed that axonal mRNAs segregate into axon growth-associated RNA regulons based on hnRNP interactions. Axotomy increases axonal transport of hnRNPs H1, F, and K, depletion of these hnRNPs decreases axon growth and reduces axonal mRNA levels and axonal protein synthesis. Thus, subcellular hnRNP-interacting RNA regulons support neuronal growth and regeneration.
    Print ISSN: 1535-9476
    Electronic ISSN: 1535-9484
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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