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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-08-24
    Keywords: Lymphoid Neoplasia
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-18
    Description: Resolution of virus infections depends on the priming of virus-specific CD8 + T cells by dendritic cells (DC). While this process requires major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted antigen presentation by DC, the relative contribution to CD8 + T cell priming by infected DC is less clear. We have addressed this question in the context of a peripheral infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV). Assessing the endogenous, polyclonal HSV-specific CD8 + T cell response, we found that effective in vivo T cell priming depended on the presence of DC subsets specialized in cross-presentation, while Langerhans cells and plasmacytoid DC were dispensable. Utilizing a novel mouse model that allows for the in vivo elimination of infected DC, we also demonstrated in vivo that this requirement for cross-presenting DC was not related to their infection but instead reflected their capacity to cross-present HSV-derived antigen. Taking the results together, this study shows that infected DC are not required for effective CD8 + T cell priming during a peripheral virus infection. IMPORTANCE The ability of some DC to present viral antigen to CD8 + T cells without being infected is thought to enable the host to induce killer T cells even when viruses evade or kill infected DC. However, direct experimental in vivo proof for this notion has remained elusive. The work described in this study characterizes the role that different DC play in the induction of virus-specific killer T cell responses and, critically, introduces a novel mouse model that allows for the selective elimination of infected DC in vivo . Our finding that HSV-specific CD8 + T cells can be fully primed in the absence of DC infection shows that cross-presentation by DC is indeed sufficient for effective CD8 + T cell priming during a peripheral virus infection.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: Ferritin turnover plays a major role in tissue iron homeostasis, and ferritin malfunction is associated with impaired iron homeostasis and neurodegenerative diseases. In most eukaryotes, ferritin is considered an intracellular protein that stores iron in a nontoxic and bioavailable form. In insects, ferritin is a classically secreted protein and plays a major role in systemic iron distribution. Mammalian ferritin lacks the signal peptide for classical endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi secretion but is found in serum and is secreted via a nonclassical lysosomal secretion pathway. This study applied bioinformatics and biochemical tools, alongside a protein trafficking mouse models, to characterize the mechanisms of ferritin secretion. Ferritin trafficking via the classical secretion pathway was ruled out, and a 2:1 distribution of intracellular ferritin between membrane-bound compartments and the cytosol was observed, suggesting a role for ferritin in the vesicular compartments of the cell. Focusing on nonclassical secretion, we analyzed mouse models of impaired endolysosomal trafficking and found that ferritin secretion was decreased by a BLOC-1 mutation but increased by BLOC-2, BLOC-3, and Rab27A mutations of the cellular trafficking machinery, suggesting multiple export routes. A 13-amino-acid motif unique to ferritins that lack the secretion signal peptide was identified on the BC-loop of both subunits and plays a role in the regulation of ferritin secretion. Finally, we provide evidence that secretion of iron-rich ferritin was mediated via the multivesicular body–exosome pathway. These results enhance our understanding of the mechanism of ferritin secretion, which is an important piece in the puzzle of tissue iron homeostasis.
    Keywords: Red Cells, Iron, and Erythropoiesis
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-22
    Description: Streptococcus suis has received increasing attention for its involvement in severe human infections worldwide as well as in multidrug resistance. Two-component signaling systems (TCSSs) play important roles in bacterial adaptation to various environmental stimuli. In this study, we identified a novel TCSS located in S. suis serotype 2 (SS2), designated VraSR SS , which is involved in bacterial pathogenicity and susceptibility to antimicrobials. Our data demonstrated that the yvqF SS gene, located upstream of vraSR SS , shared the same promoter with the TCSS genes, which was directly regulated by VraSR SS , as shown in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Notably, YvqF SS and VraSR SS constitute a novel multidrug resistance module of SS2 that participates in resistance to certain groups of antimicrobials. Further analyses showed that VraSR SS inactivation significantly attenuated bacterial virulence in animal models, which, coupled with the significant activation of VraSR SS expression observed in host blood, strongly suggested that VraSR SS is an important regulator of SS2 pathogenicity. Indeed, RNA-sequencing analyses identified 106 genes that were differentially expressed between the wild-type and vraSR SS strains, including genes involved in capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis. Subsequent studies confirmed that VraSR SS indirectly regulated the transcription of CPS gene clusters and, thus, controlled the CPS thickness shown by transmission electron microscopy. Decreased CPS biosynthesis caused by vraSR SS deletion subsequently increased bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells and attenuated antiphagocytosis against macrophages, which partially clarified the pathogenic mechanism mediated by VraSR SS . Taken together, our data suggest that the novel TCSS, VraSR SS , plays critical roles for multidrug resistance and full virulence in SS2.
    Print ISSN: 0019-9567
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5522
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-29
    Description: The equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) attenuated vaccine was developed by long-term passaging of a field-isolated virulent strain in cross-species hosts, followed by successive cultivation in cells in vitro . To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the evolution of the EIAV attenuated vaccine, a systematic study focusing on long-terminal-repeat (LTR) variation in numerous virus strains ranging from virulent EIAV to attenuated EIAV was performed over time both in vitro and in vivo . Two hypervariable regions were identified within the U3 region in the enhancer region (EHR) and the negative regulatory element (NRE) and within the R region in the transcription start site (TSS) and the Tat-activating region (TAR). Among these sites, variation in the U3 region resulted in the formation of additional transcription factor binding sites; this variation of the in vitro -adapted strains was consistent with the loss of pathogenicity. Notably, the same LTR variation pattern was observed both in vitro and in vivo . Generally, the LTR variation in both the attenuated virus and the virulent strain fluctuated over time in vivo . Interestingly, the attenuated-virus-specific LTR variation was also detected in horses infected with the virulent strain, supporting the hypothesis that the evolution of an attenuated virus might have involved branching from EIAV quasispecies. This hypothesis was verified by phylogenetic analysis. The present systematic study examining the molecular evolution of attenuated EIAV from EIAV quasispecies may provide an informative model reflecting the evolution of similar lentiviruses. IMPORTANCE The attenuated EIAV vaccine was the first lentiviral vaccine used to successfully control for equine infectious anemia in China. This vaccine provides an important reference for studying the relationship between EIAV gene variation and changes in biological characteristics. Importantly, the vaccine provides a model for the investigation of lentiviral quasispecies evolution. This study followed the "natural" development of the attenuated EIAV vaccine by use of a systematic analysis of LTR evolution in vitro and in vivo . The results revealed that the increase in LTR variation with passaging was accompanied by a decrease in virulence, which indicated that LTR variability might parallel the attenuation of virulence. Interestingly, the attenuated-virus-specific LTR variation was also detected in virulent-strain-infected horses, a finding consistent with those of previous investigations of gp90 and S2 evolution. Therefore, we present a hypothesis that the evolution of the attenuated virus may involve branching from EIAV quasispecies present in vivo .
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-03-29
    Description: The group of highly related avian leukosis viruses (ALVs) in chickens are thought to have evolved from a common retroviral ancestor into six subgroups, A to E and J. These ALV subgroups use diverse cellular proteins encoded by four genetic loci in chickens as receptors to gain entry into host cells. Hosts exposed to ALVs might be under selective pressure to develop resistance to ALV infection. Indeed, resistance alleles have previously been identified in all four receptor loci in chickens. The tvb gene encodes a receptor, which determines the susceptibility of host cells to ALV subgroup B (ALV-B), ALV-D, and ALV-E. Here we describe the identification of two novel alleles of the tvb receptor gene, which possess independent insertions each within exon 4. The insertions resulted in frameshift mutations that reveal a premature stop codon that causes nonsense-mediated decay of the mutant mRNA and the production of truncated Tvb protein. As a result, we observed that the frameshift mutations in the tvb gene significantly lower the binding affinity of the truncated Tvb receptors for the ALV-B, ALV-D, and ALV-E envelope glycoproteins and significantly reduce susceptibility to infection by ALV-B, ALV-D and ALV-E in vitro and in vivo . Taken together, these findings suggest that frameshift mutation can be a molecular mechanism of reducing susceptibility to ALV and enhance our understanding of virus-host coevolution. IMPORTANCE Avian leukosis virus (ALV) once caused devastating economic loss to the U.S. poultry industry prior the current eradication schemes in place, and it continues to cause severe calamity to the poultry industry in China and Southeast Asia, where deployment of a complete eradication scheme remains a challenge. The tvb gene encodes the cellular receptor necessary for subgroup B, D, and E ALV infection. Two tvb allelic variants that resulted from frameshift mutations have been identified in this study, which have been shown to have significantly reduced functionality in mediating subgroup B, D, and E ALV infection. Unlike the control of herpesvirus-induced diseases by vaccination, the control of avian leukosis in chickens has relied totally on virus eradication measures and host genetic resistance. This finding enriches the allelic pool of the tvb gene and expands the potential for genetic improvement of ALV resistance in varied chicken populations by selection.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-03-15
    Description: Although influenza A virus (IAV) evades cellular defense systems to effectively propagate in the host, the viral immune-evasive mechanisms are incompletely understood. Our recent data showed that hemagglutinin (HA) of IAV induces degradation of type I IFN receptor 1 (IFNAR1). Here, we demonstrate that IAV HA induces degradation of type II IFN (IFN-) receptor 1 (IFNGR1), as well as IFNAR1, via casein kinase 1α (CK1α), resulting in the impairment of cellular responsiveness to both type I and II IFNs. IAV infection or transient HA expression induced degradation of both IFNGR1 and IFNAR1, whereas HA gene-deficient IAV failed to downregulate the receptors. IAV HA caused the phosphorylation and ubiquitination of IFNGR1, leading to the lysosome-dependent degradation of IFNGR1. Influenza viral HA strongly decreased cellular sensitivity to type II IFNs, as it suppressed the activation of STAT1 and the induction of IFN--stimulated genes in response to exogenously supplied recombinant IFN-. Importantly, CK1α, but not p38 MAP kinase or protein kinase D2, was proven to be critical for HA-induced degradation of both IFNGR1 and IFNAR1. Pharmacologic inhibition of CK1α or small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based knockdown of CK1α repressed the degradation processes of both IFNGR1 and IFNAR1 triggered by IAV infection. Further, CK1α was shown to be pivotal for proficient replication of IAV. Collectively, the results suggest that IAV HA induces degradation of IFN receptors via CK1α, creating conditions favorable for viral propagation. Therefore, the study uncovers a new immune-evasive pathway of influenza virus. IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus (IAV) remains a grave threat to humans, causing seasonal and pandemic influenza. Upon infection, innate and adaptive immunity, such as the interferon (IFN) response, is induced to protect hosts against IAV infection. However, IAV seems to be equipped with tactics to evade the IFN-mediated antiviral responses, although the detailed mechanisms need to be elucidated. In the present study, we show that IAV HA induces the degradation of the type II IFN receptor IFNGR1 and thereby substantially attenuates cellular responses to IFN-. Of note, a cellular kinase, casein kinase 1α (CK1α), is crucial for IAV HA-induced degradation of both IFNGR1 and IFNAR1. Accordingly, CK1α is proven to positively regulate IAV propagation. Thus, this study unveils a novel strategy employed by IAV to evade IFN-mediated antiviral activities. These findings may provide new insights into the interplay between IAV and host immunity to impact influenza virus pathogenicity.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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