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  • The American Association of Immunologists (AAI)  (1)
  • The American Society for Microbiology (ASM)  (1)
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Publisher
  • The American Association of Immunologists (AAI)  (1)
  • The American Society for Microbiology (ASM)  (1)
  • Blackwell Science Ltd  (1)
Years
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Cryptococcal species vary in capsule and cell size, thermotolerance, geographic distribution, and affected populations. Cryptococcus gattii sensu stricto and C. deuterogattii affect mainly immunocompetent hosts; however, C. bacillisporus , C. decagattii , and C. tetragattii cause infections mainly in immunocompromised hosts. This study aimed to compare the capacities of different species of the C. gattii species complex to induce cytokines and antimicrobial molecules in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cryptococcus bacillisporus and C. deuterogattii induced the lowest levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 among the five species of the C. gattii complex. Cryptococcus deuterogattii induced higher levels of IL-22 than those induced by C. tetragattii and the environmental species C. flavescens . In addition, C. bacillisporus and C. gattii sensu stricto proliferated inside human monocyte-derived macrophages after 24 h of infection. All Cryptococcus species were able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human PBMCs, with C. bacillisporus and C. deuterogattii being more efficient than the other species. In conclusion, C. bacillisporus and C. deuterogattii induce lower levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and higher ROS levels than those induced by the other species. Species of the Cryptococcus gattii complex have different abilities to induce cytokine and ROS production by human PBMCs.
    Print ISSN: 0019-9567
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5522
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-02-10
    Description: Malarial infection in naive individuals induces a robust innate immune response. In the recently described model of innate immune memory, an initial stimulus primes the innate immune system to either hyperrespond (termed training) or hyporespond (tolerance) to subsequent immune challenge. Previous work in both mice and humans demonstrated that infection with malaria can both serve as a priming stimulus and promote tolerance to subsequent infection. In this study, we demonstrate that initial stimulation with Plasmodium falciparum –infected RBCs or the malaria crystal hemozoin induced human adherent PBMCs to hyperrespond to subsequent ligation of TLR2. This hyperresponsiveness correlated with increased H3K4me3 at important immunometabolic promoters, and these epigenetic modifications were also seen in Kenyan children naturally infected with malaria. However, the use of epigenetic and metabolic inhibitors indicated that the induction of trained immunity by malaria and its ligands may occur via a previously unrecognized mechanism(s).
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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