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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: CDP138 is a calcium- and lipid-binding protein that is involved in membrane trafficking. Here, we report that mice without CDP138 develop obesity under normal chow diet (NCD) or high-fat diet (HFD) conditions. CDP138 –/– mice have lower energy expenditure, oxygen consumption, and body temperature than wild-type (WT) mice. CDP138 is exclusively expressed in adrenal medulla and is colocalized with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a marker of sympathetic nervous terminals, in the inguinal fat. Compared with WT controls, CDP138 –/– mice had altered catecholamine levels in circulation, adrenal gland, and inguinal fat. Adrenergic signaling on cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) phosphorylation induced by cold challenge but not by an exogenous β3 adrenoceptor against CL316243 were decreased in adipose tissues of CDP138 –/– mice. Cold-induced beige fat browning, fatty acid oxidation, thermogenesis, and related gene expression were reduced in CDP138 –/– mice. CDP138 –/– mice are also prone to HFD-induced insulin resistance, as assessed by Akt phosphorylation and glucose transport in skeletal muscles. Our data indicate that CDP138 is a regulator of stress response and plays a significant role in adipose tissue browning, energy balance, and insulin sensitivity through regulating catecholamine secretion from the sympathetic nervous terminals and adrenal gland.
    Print ISSN: 0270-7306
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5549
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-14
    Description: The recently emerged highly virulent variants of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) have caused colossal economic losses to the worldwide swine industry. In this study, we investigated the viral virulence determinants by constructing a series of chimeric mutants between the highly virulent strain BJ2011C and the avirulent strain CHM2013. When tested in the 2-day-old piglet model, wild-type (WT) BJ2011C caused severe diarrhea and death of the piglets within 72 h. In contrast, its chimeric derivative carrying the S gene from CHM2013 (BJ2011C-S CHM ) was avirulent to the piglets. Moreover, reciprocal substitution of the BJ2011C S gene (CHM2013-S BJ ) did not enable CHM2013 to gain any virulence. However, when the whole structural protein-coding region of BJ2011C (CHM2013-SP BJ ) was swapped, CHM2013 started to gain the ability to efficiently colonize the intestinal tract and caused diarrhea in piglets. A further gain of virulence required additional acquisition of the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of BJ2011C, and the resultant virus (CHM2013-SP + 3UTR BJ ) caused more severe diarrhea and death of piglets. Together, our findings suggest that the virulence of PEDV epidemic strains is a multigenic event and that the S gene is only one of the necessary determinants. IMPORTANCE The recently emerged highly virulent PEDV variants are the major cause of the global porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) pandemic. The S gene of the variants undergoes remarkable variations and has been thought to be the virulence determinant for the enhanced pathogenesis. Our studies here showed that the S gene is only part of the story and that full virulence requires cooperation from other genes. Our findings provide insight into the pathogenic mechanism of the highly virulent PEDV variants and have implications for future vaccine development.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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