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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: The members of Flaviviridae utilize several endocytic pathways to enter a variety of host cells. Our previous work showed that classical swine fever virus (CSFV) enters porcine kidney (PK-15) cells through a clathrin-dependent pathway that requires Rab5 and Rab7. The entry mechanism for CSFV into other cell lines remains unclear, for instance, porcine alveolar macrophages (3D4/21 cells). More importantly, the trafficking of CSFV within endosomes controlled by Rab GTPases is unknown in 3D4/21 cells. In this study, entry and postinternalization of CSFV were analyzed using chemical inhibitors, RNA interference, and dominant-negative (DN) mutants. Our data demonstrated that CSFV entry into 3D4/21 cells depends on caveolae, dynamin, and cholesterol but not clathrin or macropinocytosis. The effects of DN mutants and knockdown of four Rab proteins that regulate endosomal trafficking were examined on CSFV infection, respectively. The results showed that Rab5, Rab7, and Rab11, but not Rab9, regulate CSFV endocytosis. Confocal microscopy showed that virus particles colocalize with Rab5, Rab7, or Rab11 within 30 min after virus entry and further with lysosomes, suggesting that after internalization CSFV moves to early, late, and recycling endosomes and then into lysosomes before the release of the viral genome. Our findings provide insights into the life cycle of pestiviruses in macrophages. IMPORTANCE Classical swine fever, is caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). The disease is notifiable to World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in most countries and causes significant financial losses to the pig industry globally. Understanding the processes of CSFV endocytosis and postinternalization will advance our knowledge of the disease and provide potential novel drug targets against CSFV. With this objective, we used systematic approaches to dissect these processes in CSFV-infected 3D4/21 cells. The data presented here demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that CSFV is able to enter cells via caveola-mediated endocytosis that requires Rab5, Rab7 and Rab11, in addition to the previously described classical clathrin-dependent pathway that requires Rab5 and Rab7. The characterization of CSFV entry will further promote our current understanding of Pestivirus cellular entry pathways and provide novel targets for antiviral drug development.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-05-30
    Description: As a prevalent agent in cats, feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) infection contributes to feline respiratory disease and acute and chronic conjunctivitis. FHV-1 can successfully evade the host innate immune response and persist for the lifetime of the cat. Several mechanisms of immune evasion by human herpesviruses have been elucidated, but the mechanism of immune evasion by FHV-1 remains unknown. In this study, we screened for FHV-1 open reading frames (ORFs) responsible for inhibiting the type I interferon (IFN) pathway with an IFN-β promoter reporter and analysis of IFN-β mRNA levels in HEK 293T cells and the Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cell line, and we identified the Ser/Thr kinase US3 as the most powerful inhibitor. Furthermore, we found that the anti-IFN activity of US3 depended on its N terminus (amino acids 1 to 75) and was independent of its kinase activity. Mechanistically, the ectopic expression of US3 selectively inhibited IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) promoter activation. Furthermore, US3 bound to the IRF association domain (IAD) of IRF3 and prevented IRF3 dimerization. Finally, US3-deleted recombinant FHV-1 and US3-repaired recombinant FHV-1 (rFHV-dUS3 and rFHV-rUS3, respectively) were constructed. Compared with wild-type FHV-1 and rFHV-rUS3, infection with rFHV-dUS3 induced large amounts of IFN-β in vitro and in vivo . More importantly, US3 deletion significantly attenuated virulence, reduced virus shedding, and blocked the invasion of trigeminal ganglia. These results indicate that FHV-1 US3 efficiently inhibits IFN induction by using a novel immune evasion mechanism and that FHV-1 US3 is a potential regulator of neurovirulence. IMPORTANCE Despite widespread vaccination, the prevalence of FHV-1 remains high, suggesting that it can successfully evade the host innate immune response and infect cats. In this study, we screened viral proteins for inhibiting the IFN pathway and identified the Ser/Thr kinase US3 as the most powerful inhibitor. In contrast to other members of the alphaherpesviruses, FHV-1 US3 blocked the host type I IFN pathway in a kinase-independent manner and via binding to the IRF3 IAD and preventing IRF3 dimerization. More importantly, the depletion of US3 attenuated the anti-IFN activity of FHV-1 and prevented efficient viral replication in vitro and in vivo . Also, US3 deletion significantly attenuated virulence and blocked the invasion of trigeminal ganglia. We believe that these findings not only will help us to better understand the mechanism of how FHV-1 manipulates the host IFN response but also highlight the potential role of US3 in the establishment of latent infection in vivo .
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-04-27
    Print ISSN: 0066-4804
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-6596
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-04-27
    Description: We identified 20 to 22 resistance genes, carried in four incompatibility groups of plasmids, in each of five genetically closely related Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains recovered from humans, pigs, and chickens. The genes conferred resistance to aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, tetracycline, fluoroquinolones, extended-spectrum cephalosporins and cefoxitin, and azithromycin. This study demonstrates the transmission of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains among humans and food animals and may be the first identification of mphA in azithromycin-resistant Salmonella strains in Taiwan.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4804
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-6596
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-04-27
    Description: Detailed annotation of an IncHI2 plasmid, pSTM6-275, from Salmonella enterica serotype 1,4,5,12:i:- strain TW-Stm6 revealed a composite structure, including antimicrobial resistance genes on mobile genetic elements. The plasmid was thermosensitive for transfer to Escherichia coli and conferred reduced susceptibility to antibiotics, copper sulfate, and silver nitrate. Metal ion susceptibility was dependent on physiological conditions, giving an insight into the environments where this trait might confer a fitness advantage.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4804
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-6596
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-05-15
    Description: H7N9 virus has caused five infection waves since it emerged in 2013. The highest number of human cases was seen in wave 5; however, the underlying reasons have not been thoroughly elucidated. In this study, the geographical distribution, phylogeny, and genetic evolution of 240 H7N9 viruses in wave 5, including 35 new isolates from patients and poultry in nine provinces, were comprehensively analyzed together with strains from first four waves. Geographical distribution analysis indicated that the newly emerging highly pathogenic (HP) and low-pathogenicity (LP) H7N9 viruses were cocirculating, causing human and poultry infections across China. Genetic analysis indicated that dynamic reassortment of the internal genes among LP-H7N9/H9N2/H6Ny and HP-H7N9, as well as of the surface genes, between the Yangtze and Pearl River Delta lineages resulted in at least 36 genotypes, with three major genotypes (G1 [A/chicken/Jiangsu/SC537/2013-like], G3 [A/Chicken/Zhongshan/ZS/2017-like], and G11 [A/Anhui/40094/2015-like]). The HP-H7N9 genotype likely evolved from G1 LP-H7N9 by the insertion of a KRTA motif at the cleavage site (CS) and then evolved into 15 genotypes with four different CS motifs, including PKG KRTA R/G, PKG KRIA R/G, PKR KRAA R/G, and PKR KRTA R/G. Approximately 46% (28/61) of HP strains belonged to G3. Importantly, neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor (NAI) resistance (R292K in NA) and mammalian adaptation (e.g., E627K and A588V in PB2) mutations were found in a few non-human-derived HP-H7N9 strains. In summary, the enhanced prevalence and diverse genetic characteristics that occurred with mammalian-adapted and NAI-resistant mutations may have contributed to increased numbers of human infections in wave 5. IMPORTANCE The highest numbers of human H7N9 infections were observed during wave 5 from October 2016 to September 2017. Our results showed that HP-H7N9 and LP-H7N9 had spread virtually throughout China and underwent dynamic reassortment with different subtypes (H7N9/H9N2 and H6Ny) and lineages (Yangtze and Pearl River Delta lineages), resulting in totals of 36 and 3 major genotypes, respectively. Notably, the NAI drug-resistant (R292K in NA) and mammalian-adapted (e.g., E627K in PB2) mutations were found in HP-H7N9 not only from human isolates but also from poultry and environmental isolates, indicating increased risks for human infections. The broad dissemination of LP- and HP-H7N9 with high levels of genetic diversity and host adaptation and drug-resistant mutations likely accounted for the sharp increases in the number of human infections during wave 5. Therefore, more strategies are needed against the further spread and damage of H7N9 in the world.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-03-28
    Description: We report a novel fusion plasmid, pP2-3T, cointegrating sequence type 3 (ST3)-IncHI2 with an IncFII plasmid backbone mediating multidrug resistance (MDR) and virulence. Phylogenetic analysis and comparative genomics revealed that pP2-3T and other MDR ST3-IncHI2 plasmids clustered together, representing a unique IncHI2 lineage that exhibited high conservation in backbones of plasmids but possessed highly genetic plasticity in various regions by acquiring numerous antibiotic resistance genes and fusing with other plasmids. Surveillance studies should be performed to monitor multiresistance IncHI2 plasmids among Enterobacteriaceae .
    Print ISSN: 0066-4804
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-6596
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-04-14
    Description: High plasma lactate is associated with poor prognosis of many malignancies, but its role in virally mediated cancer progression and underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the first human oncogenic virus, causes several cancers, including B-cell lymphoma. Here, we report that lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) expression and lactate production are elevated in EBV-immortalized B lymphoblastic cells, and lactic acid (LA; acidic lactate) at low concentration triggers EBV-infected B-cell adhesion, morphological changes, and proliferation in vitro and in vivo . Moreover, LA-induced responses of EBV-infected B cells uniquely occurs in viral latency type III, and it is dramatically associated with the inhibition of global viral microRNAs, particularly the miR-BHRF1 cluster, and the high expression of SMAD3 , JUN , and COL1A genes. The introduction of miR-BHRF1-1 blocks the LA-induced effects of EBV-infected B cells. Thus, this may be a novel mechanism to explain EBV-immortalized B lymphoblastic cell malignancy in an LA microenvironment. IMPORTANCE The tumor microenvironment is complicated, and lactate, which is created by cell metabolism, contributes to an acidic microenvironment that facilitates cancer progression. However, how LA operates in virus-associated cancers is unclear. Thus, we studied how EBV (the first tumor virus identified in humans; it is associated with many cancers) upregulates the expression of LDH-A and lactate production in B lymphoma cells. Elevated LA induces adhesion and the growth of EBV-infected B cells by inhibiting viral microRNA transcription. Thus, we offer a novel understanding of how EBV utilizes an acidic microenvironment to promote cancer development.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-04-27
    Description: Azithromycin resistance (AZM-R) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is emerging as a clinical and public health challenge. We determined molecular characteristics of recent AZM-R Nanjing gonococcal isolates and tracked the emergence of AZM-R isolates in eastern Chinese cities in recent years. A total of 384 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Nanjing collected from 2013 to 2014 were tested for susceptibility to AZM and six additional antibiotics; all AZM-R strains were characterized genetically for resistance determinants by sequencing and were genotyped using N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Among the 384 isolates, 124 (32.3%) were AZM-R. High-level resistance (MIC, ≥256 mg/liter) was present in 10.4% (40/384) of isolates, all of which possessed the A2143G mutation in all four 23S rRNA alleles. Low- to mid-level resistance (MIC, 1 to 64 mg/liter) was present in 21.9% (84/384) of isolates, 59.5% of which possessed the C2599T mutation in all four 23S rRNA alleles. The 124 AZM-R isolates were distributed in 71 different NG-MAST sequence types (STs). ST1866 was the most prevalent type in high-level AZM-R (HL-AZM-R) isolates (45% [18/40]). This study, together with previous reports, revealed that the prevalence of AZM-R in N. gonorrhoeae isolates in certain eastern Chinese cities has risen 〉4-fold (7% to 32%) from 2008 to 2014. The principal mechanisms of AZM resistance in recent Nanjing isolates were A2143G mutations (high-level resistance) and C2599T mutations (low- to mid-level resistance) in the 23S rRNA alleles. Characterization of NG-MAST STs and phylogenetic analysis indicated the genetic diversity of N. gonorrhoeae in Nanjing; however, ST1866 was the dominant genotype associated with HL-AZM-R isolates.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: The cholesterol sulfotransferase SULT2B1b converts cholesterol to cholesterol sulfate (CS). We previously reported that SULT2B1b inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis by antagonizing the gluconeogenic activity of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α). In this study, we showed that the SULT2B1b gene is a transcriptional target of HNF4α, which led to our hypothesis that the induction of SULT2B1b by HNF4α represents a negative feedback to limit the gluconeogenic activity of HNF4α. Indeed, downregulation of Sult2B1b enhanced the gluconeogenic activity of HNF4α, which may have been accounted for by the increased acetylation of HNF4α as a result of decreased expression of the HNF4α deacetylase sirtuin 1 (Sirt1). The expression of Sult2B1b was also induced by HNF4α upon fasting, and the Sult2B1b null (Sult2B1b –/– ) mice showed increased gluconeogenic gene expression and an elevated fasting glucose level, suggesting that SULT2B1b also plays a restrictive role in HNF4α-mediated fasting-responsive gluconeogenesis. We also developed thiocholesterol, a hydrolysis-resistant derivative of CS, which showed superior activity to that of the native CS in inhibiting gluconeogenesis and improving insulin sensitivity in high-fat-diet-induced diabetic mice. We conclude that the HNF4α-SULT2B1b-CS axis represents a key endogenous mechanism to prevent uncontrolled gluconeogenesis. Thiocholesterol may be used as a therapeutic agent to manage hyperglycemia.
    Print ISSN: 0270-7306
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5549
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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