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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-14
    Description: Human adenovirus (HAdV) E1B-55K is a multifunctional regulator of productive viral replication and oncogenic transformation in nonpermissive mammalian cells. These functions depend on E1B-55K's posttranslational modification with the SUMO protein and its binding to HAdV E4orf6. Both early viral proteins recruit specific host factors to form an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that targets antiviral host substrates for proteasomal degradation. Recently, we reported that the PML-NB-associated factor Daxx represses efficient HAdV productive infection and is proteasomally degraded via a SUMO-E1B-55K-dependent, E4orf6-independent pathway, the details of which remained to be established. RNF4, a cellular SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL), induces ubiquitinylation of specific SUMOylated proteins and plays an essential role during DNA repair. Here, we show that E1B-55K recruits RNF4 to the insoluble nuclear matrix fraction of the infected cell to support RNF4/Daxx association, promoting Daxx PTM and thus inhibiting this antiviral factor. Removing RNF4 from infected cells using RNA interference resulted in blocking the proper establishment of viral replication centers and significantly diminished viral gene expression. These results provide a model for how HAdV antagonize the antiviral host responses by exploiting the functional capacity of cellular STUbLs. Thus, RNF4 and its STUbL function represent a positive factor during lytic infection and a novel candidate for future therapeutic antiviral intervention strategies. IMPORTANCE Daxx is a PML-NB-associated transcription factor that was recently shown to repress efficient HAdV productive infection. To counteract this antiviral measurement during infection, Daxx is degraded via a novel pathway including viral E1B-55K and host proteasomes. This virus-mediated degradation is independent of the classical HAdV E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which is essential during viral infection to target other host antiviral substrates. To maintain a productive viral life cycle, HAdV E1B-55K early viral protein inhibits the chromatin-remodeling factor Daxx in a SUMO-dependent manner. In addition, viral E1B-55K protein recruits the STUbL RNF4 and sequesters it into the insoluble fraction of the infected cell. E1B-55K promotes complex formation between RNF4- and E1B-55K-targeted Daxx protein, supporting Daxx posttranslational modification prior to functional inhibition. Hence, RNF4 represents a novel host factor that is beneficial for HAdV gene expression by supporting Daxx counteraction. In this regard, RNF4 and other STUbL proteins might represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-31
    Description: Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are nonenveloped viruses containing a linear, double-stranded DNA genome surrounded by an icosahedral capsid. To allow proper viral replication, the genome is imported through the nuclear pore complex associated with viral core proteins. Until now, the role of these incoming virion proteins during the early phase of infection was poorly understood. The core protein V is speculated to bridge the core and the surrounding capsid. It binds the genome in a sequence-independent manner and localizes in the nucleus of infected cells, accumulating at nucleoli. Here, we show that protein V contains conserved SUMO conjugation motifs (SCMs). Mutation of these consensus motifs resulted in reduced SUMOylation of the protein; thus, protein V represents a novel target of the host SUMOylation machinery. To understand the role of protein V SUMO posttranslational modification during productive HAdV infection, we generated a replication-competent HAdV with SCM mutations within the protein V coding sequence. Phenotypic analyses revealed that these SCM mutations are beneficial for adenoviral replication. Blocking protein V SUMOylation at specific sites shifts the onset of viral DNA replication to earlier time points during infection and promotes viral gene expression. Simultaneously, the altered kinetics within the viral life cycle are accompanied by more efficient proteasomal degradation of host determinants and increased virus progeny production than that observed during wild-type infection. Taken together, our studies show that protein V SUMOylation reduces virus growth; hence, protein V SUMOylation represents an important novel aspect of the host antiviral strategy to limit virus replication and thereby points to potential intervention strategies. IMPORTANCE Many decades of research have revealed that HAdV structural proteins promote viral entry and mainly physical stability of the viral genome in the capsid. Our work over the last years showed that this concept needs expansion as the functions are more diverse. We showed that capsid protein VI regulates the antiviral response by modulation of the transcription factor Daxx during infection. Moreover, core protein VII interacts with SPOC1 restriction factor, which is beneficial for efficient viral gene expression. Here, we were able to show that core protein V also represents a novel substrate of the host SUMOylation machinery and contains several conserved SCMs; mutation of these consensus motifs reduced SUMOylation of the protein. Unexpectedly, we observed that introducing these mutations into HAdV promotes adenoviral replication. In conclusion, we offer novel insights into adenovirus core proteins and provide evidence that SUMOylation of HAdV factors regulates replication efficiency.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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