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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: HIV vaccine development is focused on designing immunogens and delivery methods that elicit protective immunity. We evaluated a combination of adenovirus (Ad) vectors expressing HIV 1086.C (clade C) envelope glycoprotein (Env), SIV Gag p55, and human pegivirus GBV-C E2 glycoprotein. We compared replicating simian (SAd7) with nonreplicating human (Ad4) adenovirus-vectored vaccines paired with recombinant proteins in a novel prime-boost regimen in rhesus macaques, with the goal of eliciting protective immunity against SHIV challenge. In both vaccine groups, plasma and buccal Env-specific IgG, tier 1 heterologous neutralizing antibodies, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated viral inhibition were readily generated. High Env-specific T cell responses elicited in all vaccinees were significantly greater than responses targeting Gag. After three intrarectal exposures to heterologous tier 1 clade C SHIV, all 10 sham-vaccinated controls were infected, whereas 4/10 SAd7- and 3/10 Ad4-vaccinated macaques remained uninfected or maintained tightly controlled plasma viremia. Time to infection was significantly delayed in SAd7-vaccinated macaques compared to the controls. Cell-associated and plasma virus levels were significantly lower in each group of vaccinated macaques compared to controls; the lowest plasma viral burden was found in animals vaccinated with the SAd7 vectors, suggesting superior immunity conferred by the replicating simian vectors. Furthermore, higher V1V2-specific binding antibody titers correlated with viral control in the SAd7 vaccine group. Thus, recombinant Ad plus protein vaccines generated humoral and cellular immunity that was effective in either protecting from SHIV acquisition or significantly reducing viremia in animals that became infected, consequently supporting additional development of replicating Ad vectors as HIV vaccines. IMPORTANCE There is a well-acknowledged need for an effective AIDS vaccine that protects against HIV infection and limits in vivo viral replication and associated pathogenesis. Although replicating virus vectors have been advanced as HIV vaccine platforms, there have not been any direct comparisons of the replicating to the nonreplicating format. The present study directly compared the replicating SAd7 to nonreplicating Ad4 vectors in macaques and demonstrated that in the SAd7 vaccine group, the time to infection was significantly delayed compared to the control group, and V1V2 Env-specific binding antibodies correlated with viral outcomes. Viral control was significantly enhanced in vaccinated macaques compared to controls, and in infected SAd7-vaccinated macaques compared to Ad4-vaccinated macaques, suggesting that this vector may have conferred more effective immunity. Because blocking infection is so difficult with current vaccines, development of a vaccine that can limit viremia if infection occurs would be valuable. These data support further development of replicating adenovirus vectors.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-04-14
    Description: Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are significant human pathogens. Although only a subset of HAdV serotypes commonly cause gastroenteritis in humans, most HAdV species replicate in the gastrointestinal tract. Knowledge of the complex interaction between HAdVs and the human intestinal epithelium has been limited by the lack of a suitable cell culture system containing relevant cell types. Recently, this need has been met by the stable and prolonged cultivation of primary intestinal epithelial cells as enteroids. Human enteroids have been used to reveal novel and interesting aspects of rotavirus, norovirus, and enterovirus replication, prompting us to explore their suitability for HAdV culture. We found that both prototype strains and clinical isolates of enteric and nonenteric HAdVs productively replicate in human enteroids. HAdV-5p, a respiratory pathogen, and HAdV-41p, an enteric pathogen, are both sensitive to type I and III interferons in human enteroid monolayers but not A549 cells. Interestingly, HAdV-5p, but not HAdV-41p, preferentially infected goblet cells. And, HAdV-5p but not HAdV-41p was potently neutralized by the enteric human alpha-defensin HD5. These studies highlight new facets of HAdV biology that are uniquely revealed by primary intestinal epithelial cell culture. IMPORTANCE Enteric adenoviruses are a significant cause of childhood gastroenteritis worldwide, yet our understanding of their unique biology is limited. Here we report robust replication of both prototype and clinical isolates of enteric and respiratory human adenoviruses in enteroids, a primary intestinal cell culture system. Recent studies have shown that other fastidious enteric viruses replicate in human enteroids. Therefore, human enteroids may provide a unified platform for culturing enteric viruses, potentially enabling isolation of a greater diversity of viruses from patients. Moreover, both the ability of interferon to restrict respiratory and enteric adenoviruses and a surprising preference of a respiratory serotype for goblet cells demonstrate the power of this culture system to uncover aspects of adenovirus biology that were previously unattainable with standard cell lines.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-22
    Description: Brucella spp. are intracellular pathogenic bacteria remarkable in their ability to escape immune surveillance and therefore inflict a state of chronic disease within the host. To enable further immune response studies, Brucella was engineered to express the well-characterized chicken ovalbumin (OVA). Surprisingly, we found that CD8 T cells bearing T cell receptors (TCR) nominally specific for the OVA peptide SIINFEKL (OT-1) reacted to parental Brucella -infected targets as well as OVA-expressing Brucella variants in cytotoxicity assays. Furthermore, splenocytes from Brucella -immunized mice produced gamma interferon (IFN-) and exhibited cytotoxicity in response to SIINFEKL-pulsed target cells.To determine if the SIINFEKL-reactive OT-1 TCR could be cross-reacting to Brucella peptides, we searched the Brucella proteome using an algorithm to generate a list of near-neighbor nonamer peptides that would bind to H2K b . Selecting five Brucella peptide candidates, along with controls, we verified that several of these peptides mimicked SIINFEKL, resulting in T cell activation through the "SIINFEKL-specific" TCR. Activation was dependent on peptide concentration as well as sequence. Our results underscore the complexity and ubiquity of cross-reactivity in T cell recognition. This cross-reactivity may enable microbes such as Brucella to escape immune surveillance by presenting peptides similar to those of the host and may also lead to the activation of autoreactive T cells.
    Print ISSN: 0019-9567
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5522
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-30
    Description: Severe dengue virus (DENV) infection is associated with overactivity of the complement alternative pathway (AP) in patient studies. Here, the molecular changes in components of the AP during DENV infection in vitro were investigated. mRNA for factor H (FH), a major negative regulator of the AP, was significantly increased in DENV-infected endothelial cells (EC) and macrophages, but, in contrast, production of extracellular FH protein was not. This discord was not seen for the AP activator factor B (FB), with DENV induction of both FB mRNA and protein, nor was it seen with Toll-like receptor 3 or 4 stimulation of EC and macrophages, which induces both FH and FB mRNA and protein. Surface-bound and intracellular FH protein was, however, induced by DENV, but only in DENV antigen-positive cells, while in two other DENV-susceptible immortalized cell lines (ARPE-19 and human retinal endothelial cells), FH protein was induced both intracellularly and extracellularly by DENV infection. Regardless of the cell type, there was an imbalance in AP components and an increase in markers of complement AP activity associated with DENV-infected cells, with lower FH relative to FB protein, an increased ability to promote AP-mediated lytic activity, and increased deposition of complement component C3b on the surface of DENV-infected cells. For EC in particular, these changes are predicted to result in higher complement activity in the local cellular microenvironment, with the potential to induce functional changes that may result in increased vascular permeability, a hallmark of dengue disease. IMPORTANCE Dengue virus (DENV) is a significant human viral pathogen with a global medical and economic impact. DENV may cause serious and life-threatening disease, with increased vascular permeability and plasma leakage. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying these features remain unclear; however, overactivity of the complement alternative pathway has been suggested to play a role. In this study, we investigate the molecular events that may be responsible for this observed alternative pathway overactivity and provide novel findings of changes in the complement system in response to DENV infection in primary cell types that are a major target for DENV infection (macrophages) and pathogenesis (endothelial cells) in vivo . Our results suggest a new dimension of cellular events that may influence endothelial cell barrier function during DENV infection that could expand strategies for developing therapeutics to prevent or control DENV-mediated vascular disease.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-04-27
    Description: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogen responsible for health care-associated infections, and treatment options are limited. Tedizolid (TZD) is a novel oxazolidinone antibiotic with activity against MRSA. Previously, daptomycin (DAP) has demonstrated synergy with other antibiotics against MRSA. We sought to determine the efficacy of the combination of TZD and DAP against MRSA in an in vitro model of simulated endocardial vegetations (SEVs). TZD simulations of 200 mg once daily and DAP simulations of 6 mg/kg of body weight and 10 mg/kg once daily were tested alone and in the combinations TZD plus DAP at 6 mg/kg or DAP at 10 mg/kg against two clinical strains of MRSA, 494 and 67. These regimens were tested in SEV models over 8 days to determine the antibacterial activity of the regimens and whether synergy or antagonism might be present between the agents. Against both strains 494 and 67 and at both DAP dose regimens, the combination of TZD and DAP was antagonistic at 192 h. In all cases, DAP alone was statistically superior to DAP plus TZD. When the combination was stopped after 96 h, transitioning to DAP at 6 mg/kg or DAP at 10 mg/kg alone resulted in better antibacterial activity than either of the TZD-plus-DAP combinations, further demonstrating antagonistic effects. Against MRSA, we demonstrated that TZD and DAP have antagonistic activity that hinders their overall antimicrobial efficacy. The exact nature of this antagonistic relationship is still undetermined, but its presence warrants further study of the potentially harmful grouping of the two antibiotics in clinical use.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4804
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-6596
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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