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  • The International Institute of Anticancer Research (IIAR)  (3)
  • Genetics Society of America (GSA)  (2)
  • BMJ Publishing  (1)
  • 2015-2019  (6)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-01
    Description: Recombination often differs markedly between males and females. Here we present the first analysis of sex-specific recombination in Gasterosteus sticklebacks. Using whole-genome sequencing of 15 crosses between G. aculeatus and G. nipponicus , we localized 698 crossovers with a median resolution of 2.3 kb. We also used a bioinformatic approach to infer historical sex-averaged recombination patterns for both species. Recombination is greater in females than males on all chromosomes, and overall map length is 1.64 times longer in females. The locations of crossovers differ strikingly between sexes. Crossovers cluster toward chromosome ends in males, but are distributed more evenly across chromosomes in females. Suppression of recombination near the centromeres in males causes crossovers to cluster at the ends of long arms in acrocentric chromosomes, and greatly reduces crossing over on short arms. The effect of centromeres on recombination is much weaker in females. Genomic differentiation between G. aculeatus and G. nipponicus is strongly correlated with recombination rate, and patterns of differentiation along chromosomes are strongly influenced by male-specific telomere and centromere effects. We found no evidence for fine-scale correlations between recombination and local gene content in either sex. We discuss hypotheses for the origin of sexual dimorphism in recombination and its consequences for sexually antagonistic selection and sex chromosome evolution.
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-1836
    Topics: Biology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-02-09
    Description: The Hulunbuir short-tailed sheep ( Ovis aries ) is a breed native to China, in which the short-tail phenotype is the result of artificial and natural selection favoring a specific set of genetic mutations. Here, we analyzed the genetic differences between short-tail and normal-tail phenotypes at the genomic level. Selection signals were identified in genome-wide sequences. From 16 sheep, we identified 72,101,346 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Selection signals were detected based on the fixation index and heterozygosity. Seven genomic regions under putative selection were identified, and these regions contained nine genes. Among these genes, T was the strongest candidate as T is related to vertebral development. In T , a nonsynonymous mutation at c.G334T resulted in p.G112W substitution. We inferred that the c.G334T mutation in T leads to functional changes in Brachyury—encoded by this gene—resulting in the short-tail phenotype. Our findings provide a valuable insight into the development of the short-tail phenotype in sheep and other short-tailed animals.
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-1836
    Topics: Biology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-08
    Description: Background/Aim: We performed a retrospective survey on our metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRCC) patients who had received targeted therapies, and afterwards evaluated the clinical impacts of local interventions on the patient outcomes. Materials and Methods: Between 2006 and 2016, 124 patients with MRCC who had received at least one line of tyrosine kinase inhibitors or mammalian target of rapamycin were included in the study. Seventy-five patients (60.5%) received targeted therapies only, twenty-six patients received complete resection and the remaining 23 received incomplete local interventions for their metastatic lesions. Analysis of the basic characteristics, overall survival and multi-variant regression amongst the three groups was performed. Results: The age, gender distribution, tumor cell type, targeted therapy selection, line of therapies and sites of metastases were not different amongst the three groups. The targeted therapy-only group had a significantly higher percentage of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) poor-risk patients compared with the other two groups (22.7% vs. 3.8% and 0%, p=0.006 respectively). The targeted treatment duration and follow-up duration was significantly shorted in the targeted therapy-only group. Of the twelve variables analyzed, complete resection and MSKCC poor-risk group showed a significant impact on the overall survival rate (HR=0.5, 95%CI=0.25-0.98, p=0.045; HR=2.97, 95%CI=1.05-8.4, p=0.04 respectively). Conclusion: Complete resection of metastatic sites for MRCC patients, combined with targeted therapy, could provide better overall survival rates than targeted therapy alone. Poor MSKCC risk is still correlated to a poor outcome in the current targeted therapy era.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-08
    Description: Background/Aim: Glioma is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor. Even with the development of multidisciplinary treatment approaches, results are disappointing because of the unavoidable tumor recurrence, which may be caused by the existence of tumor-initiating cells. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), which belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is not only involved in various cellular functions but also related to tumor growth. This study is focused, on the possible role of p75NTR in glioma tumor initiation. Materials and Methods: C6 cells with high and low expression of p75NTR were sorted using flow cytometry. The neurosphere characteristics and properties of these two subpopulations were assessed and compared with those of parental cells. Radiation and chemotherapy sensitivity was also analyzed in these cell populations. Finally, in vivo tumorigenicity of cells was tested in a rat model. Results: Cells overexpressing p75NTR (C6p75+++ cells) demonstrated greater ability of neurosphere formation, colony proliferation, and certain stem cell marker overexpression than cells with low p75NTR expression (C6p75+) and parental cells. In addition, following irradiation or temozolomide treatment, more viable C6p75+++ cells remained, and they proliferated into more colonies. In vivo, C6p75+++ cell implantation in Sprague Dawley rats reduced the survival time. Conclusion: Cells with p75NTR overexpression demonstrated certain unique characteristics of tumor-initiating cells, such as neurosphere formation, high colony proliferation, and resistance to radio- and chemotherapy. With regard to the heterogeneous composition of glioma cells, p75NTR can be used as an alternative marker to identify a glioma subpopulation with tumor-initiating properties.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-09-08
    Description: Background/Aim: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression after abiraterone acetate (AA) treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Patients and Methods: Between 2012 and 2017, 83 patients with clinically-confirmed mCRPC previously treated with docetaxel with/without cabazitaxel followed by AA were included in this retrospective study. All patients received 1,000 mg AA with 5 or 10 mg prednisolone. Among them, 59 were eligible for this study based on PSA progression during the clinical course. Patients were divided into two groups, AA responders and AA non-responders according to previous PSA response to AA treatment. Overall survival and treatment response to subsequent therapy were analyzed. Results: The median overall survival of the 59 patients after AA-treated PSA progression was 12 (95% confidence interval(CI)=7.6-16.4) months and was longer in the AA-responding group compared to the non-responding group (25 vs. 8 months, p〈0.001). The survival time after PSA progression on AA was longer in the AA-responsive group despite not being statistically different (13 vs. 7 months, p=0.126). Patients with AA treatment who received subsequent therapies after PSA progression had better overall survival than those without (18 vs. 4 months, p=0.003). In addition, there was a trend for better chemotherapy response in AA non-responders than AA responders, 62.5% (5/8) vs. 12.5% (1/8) respectively. Conclusion: In our small retrospective patient experience, effective sequential treatments for patients with mCRPC provided overall survival benefit. Previous treatment response can act as a clinical predictor for subsequent treatment.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-01-28
    Description: Objectives This study aimed to assess the relationship between infection with multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) types and abnormal anal cytology in HIV-infected men. Design An observational, cross-sectional study. Setting A regional referral hospital in Taiwan. Participants In total, 714 HIV-infected men were enrolled between March 2011 and June 2016. Thin preparation anal Pap smears were interpreted according to the 2001 Bethesda System. Thirty-seven types of HPV were detected by reverse line blotting, including 13 oncogenic types and 24 non-oncogenic types. Outcome measures The relationship between anal HPV infection and abnormal anal cytology in people of Asian ethnicity and the coverage efficacy in HPV-vaccinated HIV-infected men. Results On anal cytology, 175 (24.5%) subjects had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or higher grades of dysplasia, including 87 (49.7%) with ASCUS, 73 (41.7%) with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) and 15 (8.6%) with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). A higher proportion of subjects with those without LSIL/HSIL (93.1% vs 67.3%, P〈0.0001) had multiple HPV types. The odds of having LSIL/HSIL increased with an increasing number of HPV types: the ORs ranged from 1 for no HPV types to 6.96 (95% CI 2.38 to 20.37) for more than five types (P trend 〈0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between LSIL/HSIL and the number of HPV genotypes present (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.42, P〈0.05). HPV types covered by the nonavalent HPV vaccine (types 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) were detected in 70.1% of the patients in this study. Conclusions The odds of having anal LSIL/HSIL are approximately seventimes greater in HIV-infected men with than withoutsix or more types of HPV. Multiple HPV types in HIV-infected patients deserves aggressive follow-up, and HPV vaccination programme require scaling up.
    Keywords: Oncology, Open access
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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