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  • Wiley-Blackwell  (38)
  • Blackwell Futura Publishing, Inc.  (1)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-01-14
    Description: Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) is a major health problem that affects approximately four hundred thousand patients annually in the United States alone. It is a major challenge for the emergency medical system since decreased survival rates are directly proportional to the time delay from collapse to defibrillation. Historically, defibrillation has only been performed by physicians and in-hospital. With the development of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), rapid defibrillation by non-medical professionals and subsequently by trained or untrained lay bystanders has become possible. Much hope has been put to the concept of Public Access Defibrillation with a massive dissemination of public available AEDs throughout most western countries. Accordingly, current guidelines recommend that AEDs should be deployed in places with a high likelihood of OHCA. Despite these efforts, AED use is in most settings anecdotal with little effect on overall OHCA survival. The major reasons for low use of public AEDs are that most OHCA take place outside high incidence sites of cardiac arrest and that most OHCAs take place in residential settings, currently defined as not suitable for Public Access Defibrillation. However, the use of new technology for identification and recruitment of lay bystanders and nearby AEDs to the scene of the cardiac arrest as well as new methods for strategic AED placement redefines and challenges the current concept and definitions of Public Access Defibrillation. Existing evidence of Public Access Defibrillation and knowledge gaps and future directions to improve outcomes for OHCA are discussed. In addition, a new definition of the different levels of Public Access Defibrillation is offered as well as new strategies for increasing AED use in the society. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0954-6820
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2796
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: yeast ; peroxisome biogenesis ; peroxisome-deficient mutant ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Expression of the peroxisome-deficient (Per-) phenotype by per mutants of Hansenula polymorpha is shown to be dependent on specific environmental conditions. Analysis of our collection of constitutive and conditional per mutants showed that, irrespective of the carbon source used, the mutants invariably lacked functional peroxisomes when ammonium sulphate was used as a nitrogen source. However, in two temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants, per13-6ts and per14-11ts, peroxisomes were present at the restrictive temperature when cells were grown on organic nitrogen sources which are known to induce peroxisomes in wild-type cells, namely D-alanine (for both mutants) or methylamine (for per14-11ts). These organelles displayed normal wild-type properties with respect to morphology, mode of development and protein composition.However, under these conditions not all the peroxisomal matrix proteins synthesized were correctly located inside peroxisomes. Detailed biochemical and (immuno) cytochemical analyses indicated that during growth of cells on methanol in the presence of either D-alanine or methylamine, a minor portion of these proteins (predominantly alcohol oxidase, dihydroxyacetone synthase and catalase) still resided in the cytosol. This residual cytosolic activity may explain the observation that the functional restoration of the two ts mutants is not complete under these conditions, as is reflected by the retarded growth of the cells in batch cultures on methanol.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: alcohol oxidase ; flavin adenine dinucleotide ; peroxisomes ; Hansenula polymorpha ; protein translocation ; protein assembly ; Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We have studied the role of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in the in vivo assembly of peroxisomal alcohol oxidase (AO) in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha. In previous studies, using a riboflavin (Rf) autotrophic mutant, an unequivocal judgement could not be made, since Rf-limitation led to a partial block of AO import in this mutant. This resulted in the accumulation of AO precursors in the cytosol where they remained separated from the putative peroxisomal AO assembly factors. In order to circumvent the peroxisomal membrane barrier, we have now studied AO assembly in a peroxisome-deficient/Rf-autotrophic double mutant (Δper1.rif1) of H. polymorpha. By sucrose density centrifugation and native gel electrophoresis, three conformations of AO were detected in crude extracts of Δper1.rif1 cells grown under Rf-limitation, namely active octameric AO and two inactive, monomeric forms. One of the latter forms lacked FAD; this form was barely detectable in extracts wild-type and Δper1 cells, but had accumulated in the cytosol of rif1 cells. The second form of monomeric AO contained FAD; this form was also present in Δper1 cells but absent/very low in wild-type and rif1 cells. In vivo only these FAD-containing monomers associate into the active, octameric protein. We conclude that in H. polymorpha FAD binding to the AO monomer is mediated by a yet unknown peroxisomal factor and represents the crucial and essential step to enable AO oligomerization; the actual octamerization and the eventual crystallization in peroxisomes most probably occurs spontaneously.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: peroxisome biogenesis ; peroxisomal protein import ; peroxisomal membrane protein ; PEX gene regulation ; Hansenula polymorpha ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: PEX3 encodes a 52 kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP), essential for peroxisome biogenesis in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha. The relation between Pex3p levels and peroxisome formation was studied in wild type (WT) and Δpex3 strains expressing additional copies of PEX3 under control of a substrate-inducible promoter, namely the strong alcohol oxidase (PAOX) or the weaker amine oxidase (PAMO) promoter. In glucose-grown Δpex3 cells, containing PAOX. PEX3, Pex3p was undetectable and peroxisomes were absent. After induction of these cells on methanol, peroxisomes were rapidly formed. At Pex3p levels up to 7-10 times the values observed in WT controls normal peroxisomes were present. However, at further enhanced Pex3p levels a general matrix protein import defect was observed. This phenomenon was paralleled by aberrant peroxisome assembly and the formation of numerous small vesicles. These vesicles contained Pex3p, together with other H. polymorpha PMPs, but lacked the major matrix proteins which has accumulated in the cytosol. The implications of our results on PEX3 gene regulation and functioning of the peroxisomal matrix protein import machinery in H. polymorpha are discussed. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 29 (1986), S. 1713-1734 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: For the total atomic Thomas-Fermi (TF) energy many expressions in terms of the kinetic and potential energy contributions can be given. Thirty of these expressions exhibit either a maximum or a minimum if some variational approximation to the TF function is used. Three of these expressions, to note E, G, and J (see text) have been used in an optimization procedure, in which four two-parameter and two three-parameter approximate TF functions have been considered. One-parameter functions cannot be optimized, as the one parameter must be fixed to ensure proper normalization. It is found that optimization of E and G give reasonable and similar results, whereas the results of optimization of J are generally not very impressive. Where possible, expectation values of the type 〈rn〉 (with n = -1, 1, 2, and 3) have been calculated from ten approximate TF functions. A new estimate of the exact atomic TF energy, as well as of the derivative of the TF function at the origin, has been obtained.
    Additional Material: 5 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 17 (1980), S. 1099-1109 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Des développments gaussiens complètement optimisés des fonctions hydrogénoïdes de type 1s, 2pz, 3dxy, et 4fxyz ont été pratiquement reproduits par une construction spéciale des paramètres variationnels. L'utilité des fonctions génératrices utilisées est discutée brièvement.
    Abstract: Vollständig optimisierte Gaussentwicklungen wasserstoffähnlicher Funktionen von Typ 1s, 2pz, 3dxy, und 4fxyz sind mittels eines speziellen Verfahrens für die bestimmung der Variationsparameter praktisch reproduziert worden. Der Nutzen der angewandten erzeugenden Funktionen wird kurz diskutiert.
    Notes: Fully optimized lengthy Gaussian expansions of hydrogenic 1s and 2pz functions have been practically reproduced by generating the variational parameters by means of suitably chosen functions involving only few parameters. Hydrogenic 3dxy and 4fxyz functions have been approximated in a similar way. The usefulness of such generating functions is briefly discussed.
    Additional Material: 5 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Owing to an error in his determination of the repulsion integral and the kinetic energy. Hall's results [1] for the ground state of atomic two-electron systems are wrong. Here these results have been corrected. For Z ≤ 5, the results have been obtained by determining the pertinent integrals numerically: but for Z ≥ 5, these can be found sufficiently accurately from Z expansions.
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: It is advocated to carry out an optimization procedure, which is based upon the variational method, in such a way that the optimum values of the variational parameters are expressed as functions of physical constants, such as the atomic number, Z. The three stages involved in this treatment are illustrated by the optimization of nine correlated wave functions, which describe the ground states of atomic two-electron systems. An analysis of the Z-expansions of the total energies associated with these functions leads to the concept of a class of variational functions. The performances of functions belonging to the same class differ only marginally, especially at larger values of Z. Consequently, the concept of class may be used to bring some order in the plethora of variational functions. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 27 (1982), S. 489-505 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A kinetic model based on the free volume theory has been proposed for the polymerization of styrene. The model, which is capable of describing the course of polymerization in both bulk and solution, accounts for diffusion-controlled termination and propagation and gives a limiting conversion.
    Additional Material: 18 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Solid phase microextraction (SPME) ; capillary gas chromatography ; detection limits ; wine aroma compounds ; classification of wines ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Headspace-SPME followed by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to investigate 90 German wines originating from different grape varieties, vintages, and growing areas. Aromagrams obtained in single ion monitoring (SIM) and in the full scan detection mode (SCAN) of quadrupole mass spectrometer were compared. Detection limits, reproducibility, and linearity for some aroma relevant substances were estimated over a wide concentration range. The advantages of SIM data set (lower detection limit, better reproducibility and linearity in the smaller concentration ranges) should be reflected in more reliable results in classification of wines. To verify these expectation, classification of variety by discriminant analysis was performed with cross validation using both SIM and SCAN data sets including 19 aroma compounds, respectively.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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