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• Wiley-Blackwell  (7)
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• 1
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Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Addiction biology 10 (2005), S. 0
ISSN: 1369-1600
Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
Topics: Medicine
Notes: Recently, two new ecstasy-like substances, methylone and mCPP, were found in street drugs in the Netherlands by the Drugs Information and Monitoring System (DIMS). Methylone (3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone) is the main ingredient of a new liquid designer drug that appeared on the Dutch drug market, called ‘Explosion’. mCPP (meta-chlorophenylpiperazine) is a substance often used as a probe for the serotonin function in psychiatric research, and has now been found in street drugs, both in tablets and powders. Methylone as well as mCPP act on monoaminergic systems, resembling MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), with mCPP mainly affecting the serotonin system. The subjective effects of both new substances exhibit subtle differences with those of MDMA. Only little is known about the harmfulness of both methylone and mCPP. However, because of similarities between these substances and MDMA, risks common to MDMA cannot be excluded.
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• 2
Electronic Resource
Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: We studied the elution of dextrans in gel permeation chromatography (GPC) using a low-angle laser light-scattering (LALLS) system to monitor the molecular weight and the standard refractive index (RI) detector to measure the concentration. In pure water the dextrans show bimodal chromatograms of the RI response as well as of the LALLS response. The first eluted peak reflects the macroion exclusion due to the repulsion between negatively charged macromolecules and equally charged gel. In spite of the resulting distortion of the chromatograms, correct values of the weight-average molecular weights (M̄w) are obtained from them. If instead of pure water a salt solution (0.1 M KNO3) is used as eluant, the charge effect is completely suppressed and single-peak chromatograms are found. Again correct values of M̄w are obtained, but number-average molecular weights turn out to be too large owing to axial column dispersion in the coupling arrangement. By introducing a spreading factor, values of M̄n could be corrected. Investigations of the charge effect were also carried out by monitoring the electric conductivity of the eluted dextran zone. In this way, the phenomenon of ion inclusion, evidently provoked by charged dextran molecules, was observed.
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• 3
Electronic Resource
New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
Journal of Applied Polymer Science 36 (1988), S. 1177-1189
ISSN: 0021-8995
Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
Notes: Unstable solutions of ultrahigh molecular weight polyamide 6 have been prepared by adding a nonsolvent to the polymer solution. Crystallization of the polyamide from such a solution proceeds very slowly. It has been found, however, that vigorous stirring of the unstable solutions induces rapid fibrous crystallization of the polymer. The fiber mat consists of irregularly shaped fibers. A low temperature and a high stirring rate are among the conditions necessary to obtain a high yield of fibrous material. The fibers formed upon stirring have a higher molecular weight than the polyamide 6 molecules which remain in the solution. The melting point of the fibers depends on the speed of the paddle stirrer. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram reveals higher melting temperatures of the fibrous material if higher stirring rates have been applied.
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• 4
Electronic Resource
Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
Polymer Engineering and Science 35 (1995), S. 1569-1579
ISSN: 0032-3888
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
Notes: The self-wiping co-rotating twin-screw extruder was studied as a reactor for two polymerizations in bulk: the homopolymerization of n-butylmethacrylate and the copolymerization of n-butylmethacrylate with 2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate. The influence of the extrusion parameters on the product was analyzed. With both reactions, conversions up to 95% were obtained. Nevertheless, a significant difference was observed in the working domain of both polymerizations, in which a stable reactive extrusion process could be attained wherein the discharge rate is constant and equals the feed rate. In the case of the relatively fast copolymerization, both the throughput and the screw rotation rate could be raised without endangering the stability of the process. This was not the case for the homopolymerization studied. It was determined that the stability of the process depends on the reaction velocity and the product viscosity. Within the boundaries of the working domain, the molecular weight could be influenced by adjustments of the extrusion parameters.
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• 5
Electronic Resource
New York : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0098-1273
Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The universal calibration for gel permeation chromatography (GPC) has been applied to amylose and dextrans. The molecular weight distribution of amylose has been measured starting from known data on dextrans. The agreement found between the molecular weight averages resulting from GPC and those obtained by other methods justifies the procedure followed. The GPC measurements were performed with dimethylsulfoxide as the elution solvent and deactivated silica gel (Porasil) as the column-filling material.
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• 6
Electronic Resource
New York : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0098-1273
Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The role of the intrinsic viscosity [η] as separation parameter in gel permeation chromatography (GPC) was studied for dextrans (from Leuconostoc mesenteroids B512) dissolved in water with deactivated silicagel (Porasil) as the column-filling material. For that purpose specific viscosities of dextran fractions eluted by GPC were measured as a function of the elution volume v. Provided that the elution volumes are corrected for zonal spreading, they are related to the intrinsic viscosities in an unambiguous way, probably reflecting a unique relationship between degree of branching and molecular weights. This was further investigated by developing an iteration method to prepare two calibration curves γ(v) and g(v), respectively, relating ln[\documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$\left[ {\bar \eta } \right]$\end {document}] and InM (M is the molecular weight) to v. It required that the weight-average molecular weight Mw, the number-average molecular weight Mn, and the average intrinsic viscosity [\documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$\left[ {\bar \eta } \right]$\end {document}] for a number of dextran samples (broad distributions) be previously known. The calibration curves found lead to consistent values of the above-mentioned averages. Moreover, they allow-establishment of the [\documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$\left[ {\bar \eta } \right]$\end {document}]-M relationship over the range 5000 〈 M 〈 500,000.
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• 7
Electronic Resource
New York : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0360-6376
Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
Notes: A number of samples of poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA) with weight-average molecular weights M̄w in the range 15,000-350,000 were prepared by a ring-opening polymerization. The molecular weight distributions (MWDs) of these samples were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The method involves a universal calibration of the columns on the basis of polystyrene standards and a rapid iteration algorithm leading to the establishment of the Mark-Houwink relationship. In addition, osmometry and viscometry data are presented. The effect of hydrolytic degradation on the MWD of two PLA samples was studied by GPC.
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• 8
Electronic Resource
New York : Wiley-Blackwell
Biopolymers 46 (1998), S. 31-37
ISSN: 0006-3525
Keywords: DNA liquid crystals ; DNA fragments ; screened Coulomb interactions ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
Notes: The critical volume fractions pertaining to the formation of DNA liquid crystals were obtained from polarization microscopy, 31P-nmr, and phase separation experiments. The DNA length (approximately one to two times the persistence length 50 nm), ionic strength, and counterion variety dependencies are reported. The cholesteric-isotropic transition is interpreted in terms of the coexistence equations, which are derived from the solution free energy including orientational entropy and excluded volume effects. With the wormlike chain as reference system, the electrostatic contribution to the free energy is evaluated as a thermodynamic perturbation in the second virial approximation with a Debye-Hückel potential of mean force. The hard core contribution has been evaluated with scaled particle theory and/or a simple generalization of the Carnahan-Starling equation of state for hard spheres. For sufficiently high ionic strengths, the agreement is almost quantitative. At lower amounts of added salt deviations are observed, which are tentatively attributed to counterion screening effects. The contour length dependence agrees with a DNA persistence length 50 nm. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biopoly 46: 31-37, 1998
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• 9
Electronic Resource
Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
ISSN: 1439-0264
Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
Topics: Medicine
Notes: The distribution of vimentin- and desmin-positive cells in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) dermis was investigated by means of immunohistochemical reactivity with the commercially available (Euro-Diagnostics) polyclonal antibodies. The staining pattern for vimentin in the paraffin sections was generally comparable to that in other animal species with regard to endothelial cells, vascular wall cells, muscle cells and fibroblasts. The modified Schwann cells in the inner core of the Herbst corpuscles reacted distinctly with anti-vimentin and anti-desmin. Some connective tissue cells in the superficial dermal layer, in the feather papilla and along the pulp core inside of the regenerating feathers were particularly well stained with anti-vimentin. Fibroblast-like cells of the regenerating feathers, particularly at the base of the pulp, also reacted strongly with anti-desmin. The findings were discussed with regard to references.
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